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Some Achaemenid Royal inscriptions (2)


In ca.521, the Persian king Darius I the Great ordered that a new alphabet, the Aryan script, was to be developed. This was used for a small corpus of inscriptions, known as the Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions. Many of them can be found (in translation) somewhere on the Livius website; on these pages, a part of the remainder will be collected. An overview of all inscriptions can be found here.
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XH, inscription on a silver pitcher from Ecbatana

Inscription in Old Persian on a fragment of a silver pitcher.
  1. Xšayâršâha \ XŠhyâ \ vithiyâ \ kartam
Made in the house of king Xerxes.

XPi, inscription on a doorknob from Persepolis

Brief inscription, in Old Persian and Elamite, from the Palace of king Xerxes, and found in the Queen's Quarters.
  1. mayûxa \ kâsakaina \ Xšayâršâha \ XŠhyâ \ vithiyâ \ karta
Door knob made of lapis lazuli made in the palace of king Xerxes.

XPj, inscription on column bases from Persepolis

Inscription XPj (in Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian) was found on at least five column bases in Persepolis, all found in the Queen's Quarters, but several may be from Palace of Xerxes. Cf. XPm.
  1. adam \ Xšayâršâ \ XŠ \ vazraka \ XŠ \ XŠyânâm
  2. \ XŠ \ DHyûnâm \ XŠ \ ahyâyâ \ bûmiyâ
  3. \ Dârayavahauš \ XŠyahyâ \ puça \ Haxâmanišiya
  4. \ thâtiy \ Xšayâršâ \ XŠ \ imam \ taçaram \ adam \ akunavam
I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of all nations, king of this world, son of Darius, the Achaemenid.

King Xerxes says: I built this palace.


XPk, inscription on a relief from Persepolis

This inscription can be read on Xerxes' garment on a relief. It is written in Old Persian and Elamite.
  1. Xšayâršâ \ Dârayavahauš \ XŠyâ\ puça \ Haxâmanišiya
Xerxes, son of king Darius, the Achaemenid.

XPm, inscription on column bases from Persepolis

This inscription can be read on many fragments from the Palace of Xerxes and the Harem, and it is difficult to find out if they belong to XPm or represent the identical last line of XPj. It is written in Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian.
  1. thâtiy \ Xšayâršâ \ XŠ \ imam \ taçaram \ adam \ akunavam
King Xerxes says: I built this palace.

XSb, inscription on column bases from Susa

[Inscription on a column base, Babylonian variant on XSc.] 

I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of all countries, king of the world, the son of king Darius, the Achaemenid.


Picture of XSd, Susa. Photo Marco Prins.
XSd

XSd, inscription on column bases in the great gate of Susa

[The text on these square column bases is in three languages: Old Persian and, around the corner, Elamite and Babylonian.]

King Xerxes says: By the grace of Ahuramazda, king Darius, my father, built this portico.


XSe, inscription on a slab of marble from Susa

[Babylonian inscription on a column base.]

I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings, king of all countries, king of the world, son of king Darius, the Achaemenid.

The great king Xerxes says: Everything that I did over here, and what I did elsewhere on this world, I realized by my own hand; and everything that I did, I did with the protection of Ahuramazda.


Seals

(a) 

  1. Xšayâršâ
  2. \ XŠ \ vazraka
The great king Xerxes

(b) 

  1. adam \ Xšay
  2. âršâ \ XŠ
I am king Xerxes.

Vase

[Inscription on a fluted bowl.]
  1. Xšayâršâ \ XŠ \ vazraka
The great king Xerxes.

Literature

  • Lecoq, Les inscriptions de la Perse achéménide (1997 Paris)
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