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Antiochus IV Epiphanes

Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes ('manifestation of the god'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 175 to 164.

Successor of: his elder brother Seleucus IV Philopator


Main deeds:
  • Original name: Mithradates
  • 188: After the Syrian War, Rome and the Seleucid Empire conclude the Peace of Apemea; the Seleucids are to pay an indemnity and Antiochus is held captive in Rome
  • 187: Accession of Seleucus IV Philopator 
  • 178: Antiochus is replaced as hostage by Seleucus' son Demetrius
  • 3 September 175: the Seleucid commander Heliodorus kills Seleucus IV, who is succeeded by his son Antiochus, who is too young to rule
  • With support of king Eumenes II Soter of Pergamon, Antiochus becomes king; Heliodorus killed
  • 174: Jason appointed as high priest in Jerusalem
  • 173 Refoundation of Babylon as a Greek comunity
  • 173 or 172: visit to Jerusalem
  • 172/171: Antiochus' stepdaughter (from his wife's first marriage) Nysa marries Pharnaces of Pontus
  • 171: Revolt in Cilicia
  • 171: Jason replaced as high priest by Menelaus
  • 170: On behalf of Antiochus IV, Andronicus kills the young king Antiochus
  • 170-168: Sixth Syrian War: Ptolemy VI Philometor -who is too young to rule- attacks the Seleucid Empire. Antiochus IV builds a navy (against the terms of the Peace of Apamea) and conquers Cyprus and large parts of Egypt and presents himself as protector of Ptolemy VI against his relatives Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon and Cleopatra II
  • 168: Roman pressure forces Antiochus to retire from Alexandria in Egypt
  • 167: Unsuccessful attempt of general Eucratides to reconquer Parthia and Aria, which have been occupied by the Parni
  • 167: Intervention in Judah (6 December: rededication of the temple in Jerusalem)
  • 166: Outbreak of the Maccabaean Revolt
  • 165: Antiochus goes to the east; he captures Artaxias, capital of Armenia
  • 164: Antiochus in Babylonia and Elam
  • 15 December 164: Judas defeats Gorgias, captures Jerusalem, and restores the Jewish cult in the temple
  • November/December 164: failed attack on Susa; death
Buildings: in Antioch a temple to the Roman Jupiter Capitolinus (Livy, Periochae, 41.6)

Succeeded by:
Antiochus V Eupator


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