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Antiochus IX Cyzicenus


Coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus IX Cyzicenus.
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus: name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 115 to 95.

Relatives:

Main deeds:
  • After the death of Demetrius II Nicator (125), queen Cleopatra Thea ensured that Demetrius' son Antiochus VIII Grypus became king; after a period of joint rule, Antiochus killed his mother, and became sole ruler of the Seleucid Empire
  • From another marriage, with Antiochus VII Sidetes, Cleopatra had another son: Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, who spent his youth in Cyzicus
  • In 115, he obtains an army when he marries Cleopatra IV, who has just learned that her husband Ptolemy IX Soter has divorced her. He revolts against his half-brother, the lawful king. 
  • Antiochus IX occupies the southern part of Syria
  • 113: Antiochus IX seizes Antioch; Antiochus VIII keeps Cilicia
  • 112: Antiochus VIII defeats his opponents; Cleopatra IV is captured  and killed; 
  • Summer 112: Antioch is in the hands of Antiochus VIII again
  • The two Seleucid rulers find allies in Ptolemaic Egypt:
    • Antiochus VIII Grypus is joined by Ptolemy X Alexander
    • Antiochus IX Sidetes is supported by Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros
  • 111/110: Antiochus IX reconquers Antioch
  • 110/109: Antiochus VIII reconquers Antioch
  • Antiochus IX and Ptolemy IX Soter support the Samarians against the Hasmonaean king John Hyrcanus of Judaea
  • Rome intervenes for the Jews, and against the Samarians and Antiochus IX
  • 103: Antiochus VIII marries to Cleopatra V Selene (daughter of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon)
  • Summer 96: Natural death of Antiochus VIII; his wife Cleopatra V marries Antiochus IX, who is now within an inch of reuniting the Seleucid Empire
  • However, the son of Antiochus VIII, Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator, continues the rule of his father
  • 97/96: the brothers Demetrius III Eucaerus and Philip I Philopator, supported by Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros, seize Damascus
  • Early 95: In this struggle, Antiochus IX is defeated and killed
  • 94/93: a son of Antiochus IX, Antiochus X Eusebes, defeats Seleucus
Succeeded by: Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator

Sources:

Literature

  • O. Hoover, 'Revised Chronology for the Late Seleucids at Antioch (121/0-64 BC)' in: Historia 65/3 (2007) 280-301
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