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Antiochus VIII Grypus


Coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus VIII Grypus.
Antiochus VIII Grypus
Antiochus VIII Grypus ('hook nose'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 126/125 to 96.

Successor of: Demetrius II Nicator

Relatives:

Main deeds:
  • In 125, Demetrius II Nicator is defeated by a rebel named Alexander II Zabinas
  • In the Seleucid Empire, there is a crisis of succession. Seleucus V attempts to become sole ruler, but is killed
  • Queen Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII decide to share the throne
  • 124/123: Antiochus VIII marries to Tryphaena (daughter of Ptolemy VIII Physcon)
  • 123: Alexander is defeated, captured, and executed
  • 121: Antiochus forces Cleopatra Thea to commit suicide
  • 115: revolt of Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, a son of Cleopatra Thea from her marriage with Antiochus VII Sidetes
  • In 115, Antiochus IX obtains an army when he marries Cleopatra IV, who has just learned that her husband Ptolemy IX Soter has divorced her. He revolts against his half-brother, the lawful king Antiochus VIII.
  • Antiochus IX occupies the southern part of Syria
  • 113: Antiochus IX seizes Antioch; Antiochus VIII keeps Cilicia; he is unable to prevent the Cilician pirates from becoming powerful;
  • 112: Antiochus VIII defeats his opponents; Cleopatra IV is captured  and killed;
  • Summer 112: Antioch is in the hands of Antiochus VIII again
  • The two Seleucid rulers find allies in Ptolemaic Egypt:
    • Antiochus VIII Grypus is joined by Ptolemy X Alexander
    • Antiochus IX Sidetes is supported by Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros
  • 111/110: Antiochus IX reconquers Antioch
  • 110/109: Antiochus VIII reconquers Antioch
  • Antiochus IX and Ptolemy IX Soter support the Samarians against the Hasmonaean king John Hyrcanus of Judaea
  • Rome intervenes for the Jews, and against the Samarians and Antiochus IX
  • 104: the Roman commander Marcus Antonius attacks the Cilician pirates
  • 103: Antiochus VIII marries to Cleopatra V Selene (daughter of Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon)
  • Summer 96: Natural death; in order to put an end to the civil war, his wife marries Antiochus IX. However, a son of Antiochus VIII, Seleucus VI, continues his father's rule.
Succeeded by: Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator

Sources:

Literature

  • O. Hoover, 'Revised Chronology for the Late Seleucids at Antioch (121/0-64 BC)' in: Historia 65/3 (2007) 280-301
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