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Antiochus X Eusebes


Coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator.
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator ('benefactor', 'father lover'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 95 to c.88.

Successor of: Antiochus IX Cyzicenus

Relatives:

Main deeds:
  • Since 114/113, two sons of queen Cleopatra Thea had been quarreling, and their rivalry had become connected with a similar struggle in Ptolemaic Egypt:
  • 97/96: The Egyptian king-in-exile Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros makes Demetrius III Eucaerus and his (presumed twin) brother Philip I Philadelphus rulers in Damascus; they are successful in their war against Antiochus IX
  • In 96, it seemed that this conflict could come to an end when Antiochus VIII died and his wife Cleopatra V Selene married to Antiochus IX Cyzicenus. It seemed that the southern branch of the Seleucid dynasty would win the rivalry.
  • Summer 96: A son of Antiochus VIII, Seleucus VI Epiphanes, continued his father's rule and overcame Antiochus IX.
  • Again, this might have been the opportunity for a reunion of the Seleucid Empire, now under the northern branch of the dynasty, but instead, a son of Antiochus IX kept his father's territories. This Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator married his stepmother, Cleopatra Selene
  • Summer 94: Antiochus X defeats Seleucus at Mopsuestia in Cilicia; Seleucus is burned alive
  • The Seleucids are able to miss this third opportunity to achieve peace as well. The northern branch finds a new leader in Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus,
  • 93: Antiochus XI occupies Antioch, and is repelled, defeated and killed by Antiochus X Eusebes. He takes over the northern part, but does not control the deep south, where Demetrius and Philip continue to rule
  • c.89: War against the Parthians, end of the reign of Antiochu, who is defeated by Mithridates Sinaces and Aziz the Arab
  • Civil war between Demetrius and Philip
Sources:

Literature

  • O. Hoover, 'Revised Chronology for the Late Seleucids at Antioch (121/0-64 BC)' in: Historia 65/3 (2007) 280-301
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