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Appian's History of Rome: The Spanish Wars

Legionary standard (of XXX Ulpia Traiana reenactment group). Photo Jona Lendering.
Appian of Alexandria (c.95-c.165) is the author of a Roman History and one of the most underestimated of all Greek historians. Although only his books on the Roman Civil Wars survive in their entirety, large parts of other books have also come down to us. His account of the Spanish Wars is fortunately among these better preserved parts. It describes all Roman conflicts on the Iberian peninsula from the moment on which they conquered the Mediterranean coast during the war against Hannibal Barca until the final pacification by the emperor Augustus.

The translation was made by Horace White; footnotes and additions in green by Jona Lendering.

There are two systems to divide the Spanish Wars: in 102 sections or 16 chapters. On these webpages, the text is divided into sections; the following table shows the division into chapters. 

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1 §1: Boundaries of Spain
§2: Spanish antiquities
§3: Scope of Arrian's book on Spain
§4: Hamilcar Barca
§5: Hamilcar's death
2 §6: Hasdrubal succeeds Hamilcar
§7: The Ebro treaty
§8: Hannibal Barca succeeds Hasdrubal
§9: Hannibal's ambitions
The Second Punic War
§10: Hannibal attacks Saguntum
§11: The Saguntines appeal to Rome
§12: Fall of Saguntum
3 §13: Declaration of war
§14: The Roman commanders
§15: Successes of the two Cornelii Scipiones
§16: Their defeat and death
§17: Roman discouragement
4 §18: The election of Publius Cornelius Scipio
§19: Scipio arrives in Spain
§20: Scipio attacks New Carthage
§21: Fighting at New Carthage
§22: Surrender of New Carthage
§23: Booty of New Carthage
5 §24: Carthaginian commanders
§25: Preparations for the battle of Carmo
§26: Omens
§27: Battle of Carmo
§28: Hasdrubal moves to Italy
6 §29: Negotiations with Syphax
§30: Scipio in Africa
§31: Silanus outwits Mago
§32: Sack of Iliturgi
§33: Capture of Astapa
7 §34: Mutiny in Scipio's army
§35: Rebellious soldiers in New Carthage
§36: Suppression of the rebellion
§37: Masinissa allies himself to Scipio
§38: Final settlement in Spain
8 Pacification after the Second Punic War
§39: Insurrections
§40: Cato's victory in Spain
§41: A stratagemen of Cato
The First Celtiberian War
§42: Fulvius Flaccus suppresses the Lusones
§43: Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus
9 The Second Celtiberian War
§44: The Belli and the Titthi
§45: A Roman defeat
§46: Roman defeat near the walls of Numantia
§47: Increasing troubles for the Romans
§48: Marcus Claudius Marcellus concludes an armistice
§49: Lucius Licinius Lucullus continues the Numantine war
§50: Marcellus receives the surrender of his enemies
Lucullus' raid
§51: Lucullus attacks Cauca
§52: Sack of Cauca
§53: Lucullus attacks Intercatia
§54: Siege of Intercatia
§55: End of the Lucullus' raid
10 The Lusitanian War
§56: Outbreak of war
§57: Lucius Mummius
§58: Servius Sulpicius Galba
§59: Invasion of Lusitania
§60: Massacre of the Lusitanians
11 The "war of fire"
§61: Outbreak of war
§62: Roman defeat at Tribola
§63: Death of Vetilius
§64: Viriathus defeats Plautius twice
§65: Maximus Aemilianus defeats Viriathus near Urso
§66: War with Viriathus continued
12 §67: Quintus Fabius Maximus Servilianus
§68: Invasion of Lusitania
§69: Roman defeat at Erisana; peace treaty
§70: The Romans break the treaty
§71: Decimus Junius Brutus' counter-guerrilla
§72: Brutus crosses the Lethe
§73: Brutus captures Talabriga
§74: Viriathus assassinated
§75: Character of Viriathus
13 The Numantine War
§76: Quintus Caecilius Metellus
§77: Pompeius besieges towns near Numantia
§78: Negotiations with the Numantines
§79: Treaty between Pompeius and the Numantines
§80: Gaius Hostilius Mancinus defeated
§81: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus attacks the Vaccaei
§82: Roman failure at Pallantia
§83: Trial of Mancinus
14 §84: Scipio Aemilianus sent against the Numantines
§85: Scipio Aemilianus restores discipline
§86: Training of the Roman army
§87: Scipio advances to Numantia
§88: Skirmishes
§89: Jugurtha
15 §90: Scipio Aemilianus builds a wall around Numantia
§91: Scipio blocks the river
§92: Numantia besieged
§93: Numantia besieged
§94: Rhetogenes Caraunius
§95: Negotiations
§96: Surrender of Numantia
§97: Heroism of the Numantines
§98: Sack of Numantia
16 Later conflicts
§99: Reorganisation of provinces
§100: Titus Didius
§101: Sertorius
§102: Julius Caesar and Octavian
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