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Artaxerxes II Mnemon


Artaxerxes II on the Mausoleum of Pericles of Limyra. Archaeological Museum of Antalya (Turkey). Photo Jona Lendering.
Artaxerxes II on the Mausoleum of Pericles of Limyra (Archaeological Museum of Antalya)
Artaxerxes II Mnemon: Achaemenid king of the Persian Empire, ruled from 404 to 358.

Relatives:

  • Father: Darius II Nothus
  • Mother: Parysatis
  • First wife: Statira (daughter of Hydarnes)
  • Second wife: name not known
    • Son: Arsames

Main deeds:

  • Real name: Arsaces
  • Accession on 3 April 404
  • 404: Outbreak of civil war: Artaxerxes' brother Cyrus the Younger revolts
  • 404: In Egypt: revolt of Amyrtaeus
  • 401: Battle of Cunaxa: Cyrus army defeats Artaxerxes' army, but Cyrus dies in action
  • 401/400: Return of the Ten Thousand
  • 396: The Spartan king Agesilaus invades Asia
  • 395: The Athenian admiral Conon, commanding a Persian navy, captures Rhodes and opens a naval offensive against Sparta; execution of Tissaphernes
  • 394: Recall of Agesilaus
  • 386: King's Peace
  • 385 and 383: Pharnabazus and Tithraustes lead an army against Egypt, but the Egyptian king Achoris is able to ward off the invasion
  • Early 370's?: Wars against the Cadusians
  • 373: Failed attempt to reconquer Egypt, where Nectanebo I has become pharaoh
  • c.370: Revolt of Datames
  • 367: Beginning of the Satraps' Revolt: Ariobarzanes revolts in Hellespontine Phrygia; Maussolus of Caria, Orontes of Armenia, Autophradates of Lydia, and Datames join him
  • 362: Assassination of Datames; end of the Satrap's Revolt
  • Death in February or the first half of March 358

Sources:

Buildings:

Literature

  • R.J. van der Spek, "The chronology of the wars of  Artaxerxes II in the Babylonian Astronomical Diaries" in:  Maria Brosius & Amélie Kuhrt (eds.), Studies in Persian  History: essays in memory of David M. Lewis (= Achaemenid  History XI), Leiden 1998, pp. 239-256
  • H. Hunger & R.J. van der Spek, "An astronomical diary concerning Artaxerxes II (year 42 = 363-2 BC). Military operations in Babylonia" in: Arta 2006.002
  • The Portrait of Artaxerxes II
Succeeded by: Artaxerxes III Ochus
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Revision: 20 May 2010
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