Limmu List (858-699 BCE)

Limmu List: list of Assyrian officials who gave their names to a given year. Two parts survive, one dealing with the reign of Šamši-Adad (early eighteenth century BCE) and one dealing with the years 858-699 BCE.

King Sargon II (right) and his crown prince Sennacherib (left)

The Limmu List, which is also known as the Assyrian Eponym List, was a list Assyrian officials (the limmus, or eponymous magistrates) whose names were given to the years. This list was the foundation of the chronology of ancient Assyria, and still is an important tool to reconstruct the chronology of Mesopotamia. Two parts remain, one dealing with the first quarter of the second millennium and one dealing with years 858-699.

On this page, you will find the first part of the youngest of these two fragments, which was publised as text #9 in Jean-Jacques Glassner's Chroniques Mésopotamiennes (1993; translated as Mesopotamian Chronicles, 2004). There are no less than ten copies of this important text, found in Nineveh, Sultan-Tepe, and Aššur.

The other surviving Eponym List can be found here.

Limmu List 858-699 BCE

(...) reign of Šalmaneser [III] son of Aššurnasirpal [II], king of Assyria.
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[858/857] During the eponymy of Šarru-baltu-niši, campaign against [...].
[857/856] During the eponymy of Šalmaneser, the king of Assyria, campaign against [...].
[856/855] During the eponymy of Aššur-bêla-ka'in, the commander in chief, campaign against [...].
[855/854] During the eponymy of Aššur-bunaya-usur, the chief buttler, campaign against [...]
[854/853] During the eponymy of Abi-ina-ekalli-lilbur, the palace herald [...].
[853/852] During the eponymy of Dayan-Aššur, the commander in chief, [...]
[852/851] During the eponymy of Šamaš-abua, governor of Nisibis, [...].
[851/850] During the eponymy of Šamaš-bêla-usur, governor of Kalhu, [...].
[850/849] During the eponymy of Bêl-bunaya, the palace herald, [...].
[849/848] During the eponymy of Hadi-lipušu, governor of Na'iri, [...].
[848/847] During the eponymy of Nergal-alik-pani, governor of [...].
[847/846] During the eponymy of Bur-ramman, governor of [...].
[846/845] During the eponymy of Inurta-mukin-niši, the palace herald, [...].
[845/844] During the eponymy of Inurta-nadin-šumi, governor of [...].
[844/843] During the eponymy of Aššur-bunaya, governor of [...].
[843/842] During the eponymy of Tab-Inurta, governor of [...].
[842/841] During the eponymy of Taklak-ana-šarri, governor of Nemed-Ištar, [...].
[841/840] During the eponymy of Addad-remannii, governor of Guzana, [...].
[840/839] During the eponymy of Šamaš-abua, governor of Rasappa, campaign against the cedar mountain.
[839/838] During the eponymy of Šulma-bêli-lamur, governor of Ahuzuhina, campaign against Qu'e [Cilicia].
[838/837] During the eponymy of Inurta-kibsi-usur, governor of Rasappa, campaign against Malahi.
[837/836] During the eponymy of Inurta-ilaya, governor of Ahizuhina, campaign against Danabu.
[836/835] During the eponymy of Qurdi-Aššur, governor of Raqmat, campaign [...].
[835/834] During the eponymy of Šep-šarri, governor of Habruri, campaign against Milidu.
[834/833] During the eponymy of Nergal-mudammiq, governor of Nineveh, campaign against Namri.
[833/832] During the eponymy of Yahulu, the chamberlain, campaign against Qu'e.
[832/831] During the eponymy of Ululayu, governor of Kalizi, campaign against Qu'e.
[831/830] During the eponymy of Šarru-hatta-ipe, governor of [...], campaign agains Qu'e; [the god] Anu the Great left Der.
[830/829] During the eponymy of Nergal-ilaya, governor of Isana, campaign against Urartu.
[829/828] During the eponymy of Hubaya, governor of [...]hi, campaign against Unqu.
[828/827] During the eponymy of Ilu-mukin-ahi, governor of [...]ha, campaign against Ulluba.
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[827/826] During the eponymy of Šalmaneser, the king of Assyria, campaign against Mannea.
[826/825] During the eponymy of Dayan-Aššur, the commander in chief, revolt.
[825/824] During the eponymy of Aššur-bunaya-usur, the great butler, revolt.
[824/823] During the eponymy of Yahalu, the commander in chief, revolt.
[823/822] During the eponymy of Bêl-bunaya, the palace herald, revolt.
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Thirty-five years, Šalmaneser, king of Assyria.
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[822/821] During the eponymy of Šamši-Adad [V], the king of Assyria, revolt.
[821/820] During the eponymy of Yahalu, the commander in chief, revolt.
[820/819] During the eponymy of Bêl-dan, the palace herald, the revolt was suppressed.
[819/818] During the eponymy of Inurta-ubla, governor of [...], campaign against Mannea.
[818/817] During the eponymy of Šamaš-ilaya, governor of [...], campaign against [...]šumme.
[817/816] During the eponymy of Nergal-ilaya, governor of Isana, campaign against Tille.
[816/815] During the eponymy of Aššur-bunaya-usur, the chief butler, campaign against Tille.
[815/814] During the eponymy of Šarru-hattu-ilpe, governor of Nisibis, campaign against Zaratu.
[814/813] During the eponymy of Bêl-lu-ballat, the commander in chief, campaign against Der; Anu the Great went to Der.
[813/812] During the eponymy of Mušekniš, governor of Habruri, campaign against Ahsana.
[812/811] During the eponymy of Inurta-ašared, governor of Raqmat, campaign against Chaldaea.
[811/810] During the eponymy of Šamaš-kumua, governor of Arrapha, campaign against Babylon.
[810/809] During the eponymy of Bêl-qate-sabat, governor of Mazamua, the king stayed in the land.
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Thirteen years, Šamši-Adad, king of Assyria.
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[809/808] During the eponymy of Adad-Nirari [III], the king of Assyria, campaign against Media.
[808/807] During the eponymy of Nergal-ilaya, the commander in chief, campaign against Guzana.
[807/806] During the eponymy of Bêl-dân, the palace herald, campaign against Mannea.
[806/805] During the eponymy of Sil-Bêli, the chief butler, campaign against Mannea.
[805/804] During the eponymy of Aššur-taklak, the chamberlain, campaign against Arpad.
[804/803] During the eponymy of Ilu-issiya, governor of Aššur, campaign against Hazazu.
[803/802] During the eponymy of Nergal-ereš, governor of Rasappa, campaign against Ba'alu.
[802/801] During the eponymy of Aššur-balti-ekurri, governor of Arrapha, campaign against the Sealand; plague.
[801/800] During the eponymy of Inurta-ilaya, governor of Ahizuhina, campaign against Hubuškia.
[800/799] During the eponymy of Šep-Ištar, governor of Nisibis, campaign against Media.
[799/798] During the eponymy of Marduk-išmanni, governor of Amedi, campaign against Media.
[798/797] During the eponymy of Mutakkil-Marduk, the chief eunuch, campaign against Lušia.
[797/796] During the eponymy of Bêl-tarsi-iluma, governor of Kalhu, campaign against Namri.
[796/795] During the eponymy of Aššur-bêla-usur, governor of Habruri, campaign against Manduate.
[795/794] During the eponymy of Marduk-šaduni, governor of Raqmat, campaign against Der.
[794/793] During the eponymy of Kinu-abua, governor of Tušhan, campaign against Der.
[793/792] During the eponymy of Mannu-ki-Aššur, governor of Guzana, campaign against Media.
[792/791] During the eponymy of Mušallim-Inurta, governor of Tille, campaign against Media.
[791/790] During the eponymy of Bêl-iqišanni, governor of Šibhiniš, campaign against Hubuškia.
[790/789] During the eponymy of Šep-Šamaš, governor of Isana, campaign against Itu'a.
[789/788] During the eponymy of Inurta-mukin-ahi, governor of Nineveh, campaign against Media.
[788/787] During the eponymy of Adad-mušammer, governor of Kalizi, campaign against Mdia; foundations of the temple of Nabû in Nineveh laid.
[787/786] During the eponymy of Sil-Ištar, governor of Arbela, campaign against Media; Nabû entered his new temple.
[786/785] During the eponymy of Nabû-šarra-usur, governor of Talmusu, campaign against Kisku.
[785/784] During the eponymy of Adad-uballit, governor of Tamnuna, campaign against Hubuškia; [the god] Anu the Great went to Der.
[784/783] During the eponymy of Marduk-šarra-usur, governor of Arbela, campaign against Hubuškia.
[783/782] During the eponymy of Inurta-nasir, governor of Mazamua, campaign against Itu'a.
[782/781] During the eponymy of Iluma-le'i, governor of Nisibis, campaign against Itu'a.
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Twenty-eight years, Adad-nirari [III], king of Assyria.
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[781/780] During the eponymy of Šalmaneser [IV], the king of Assyria, campaign against Urartu.
[780/779] During the eponymy of Šamši-ilu, the commander in chief, campaign against Urartu.
[779/778] During the eponymy of Marduk-remanni, the chief butler, campaign against Urartu.
[778/777] During the eponymy of Bêl-lešer, the palace herald, campaign against Urartu.
[777/776] During the eponymy of Nabû-išdeya-ka'in, the chamberlain, campaign against Itu'a.
[776/775] During the eponymy of Pan-Aššur-lamur, governor of Aššur, campaign against Urartu.
[775/774] During the eponymy of Nergal-ereš, governor of Rasappa, campaign against the cedar mountain.
[774/773] During the eponymy of Ištar-duri, governor of Nisibis, campaign against Urartu and Namri
[773/772] During the eponymy of Mannu-ki-Adad, governor of Raqmat, campaign against Damascus.
[772/771] During the eponymy of Aššur-bela-usur, governor of Kalhu, campaign against Hatarikka.
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Ten years, Šalmaneser, king of Assyria.
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[771/770] During the eponymy of Aššur-dan [III], king of Assyria, campaign against Gananati.
[770/769] During the eponymy of Šamši-ilu, the commander in chief, campaign against Marad.
[769/768] During the eponymy of Bêl-ilaya, governor of Arrapha, campaign against Itu'a.
[768/767] During the eponymy of Aplaya, governor of Mazamua, the king stayed in the land.
[767/766] During the eponymy of Qurdi-Aššur, governor of Ahizuhina, campaign against Gananati.
[766/765] During the eponymy of Mušallim-Inurta, governor of Tille, campaign against Media.
[765/764] During the eponymy of Inurta-mukin-niši, governor of Habruri, campaign against Hatarikka; plague.
[764/763] During the eponymy of Sidqi-ilu, governor of Tušhan, the king stayed in the land.
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[763/762] During the eponymy of Bur-Saggile, governor of Guzana, revolt in Libbi-ali; in Simanu eclipse of the sun [15 June 763].
[762/761] During the eponymy of Tab-bêlu, governor of Amedi, revolt in Libbi-ali.
[761/760] During the eponymy of Nabû-mukin-apli, governor of Nineveh, revolt in Arrapha.
[760/759] During the eponymy of La-qipu, governor of Kalizi, revolt in Arrapha.
[759/758] During the eponymy of Pan-Aššur-lamur, governor of Arbela, revolt in Guzana; plague.
[758/757] During the eponymy of Ana-bêli-taklak, governor of Isana, campaign against Guazana; peace in the land.
[757/756] During the eponymy of Inurta-iddin, governor of Kurba'il, the king stayed in the land.
[756/755] During the eponymy of Bêl-šadua, governor of Tamnuna, the king stayed in the land.
[755/754] During the eponymy of Iqisu, governor of Šibhiniš, campaign against Hatarikka.
[754/753] During the eponymy of Inurta-šezibanni, governor of Talmusu, campaign against Arpad; return from Aššur.
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[753/752] During the eponymy of Aššur-nirari [V], king of Assyria, the king stayed in the land.
[752/751] During the eponymy of Šamši-ilu, the commander in chief, the king stayed in the land.
[751/750] During the eponymy of Marduk-šallimanni, the palace herald, the king stayed in the land.
[750/749] During the eponymy of Bêl-dan, the chief butler, the king stayed in the land.
[750/749] During the eponymy of Bêl-dan, the chief butler, the king stayed in the land.
[749/748] During the eponomy of Šamaš-kenu-dugul, the chamberlain, campaign against Namri.
[748/747] During the eponomy of Adad-bela-ka'in, the governor of Aššur, campaign against Namri.
[747/746] During the eponomy of Sin-šallimanni, the governor of Rasappa, the king stayed in the land.
[746/745] During the eponomy of Nergal-nasir, the governor of Nisibis, revolt in Kalhu.
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[745/744] During the eponomy of Nabû-bela-usur, the governor of Arrapha, in Ajaru, the thirteenth, Tiglath-pileser [III] ascended the throne. In Tašrîtu, he on Mesopotamia.note
[744/743] During the eponomy of Bêl-dan, the governor of Kalhu, campaign against Namri.
[743/742] During the eponomy of Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, there was a massacre among the Urartians in Arpad.
[742/741] During the eponomy of Nabû-da'inannil, the commander in chief, campaign against Arpad.
[741/740]During the eponomy of Bêl-Harran-bêla-usur, the palace herald, campaign against the same; the city was taken after three years.
[740/739] During the eponomy of Nabû-etiranni, the chief butler, campaign against Arpad.
[739/738] During the eponomy of Sin-taklak, the chamberlain, campaign against Ulluba; Birtu was captured
[738/737] During the eponomy of Adad-bêla-ka'in, the governor of Aššur, Kullania was captured.
[737/736] During the eponomy of Bêl-emuranni, the governor of Rasappa, campaign against Media.
[736/735] During the eponomy of Inurta-ilaya, the governor of Nisibis, campaign at the foot of Mount Nal.
[735/734] During the eponomy of Aššur-šallimanni, the governor of Arrapha, campaign against Urartu.
[734/733] During the eponomy of Bêl-dan, the governor of Kalhu, campaign against Philistia.note
[733/732] During the eponomy of Aššur-da'inanni, the governor of Mazamua, campaign against Damascus.
[732/731] During the eponomy of Nabû-bêla-usur, the governor of Si'imme, campaign against Damascus.
[731/730] During the eponomy of Nergal-uballit, the governor of Ahizu-hina, campaign against Šapiya.
[730/729] During the eponomy of Bêl-lu-dari, the governor of Tille, the king stayed in the land.
[729/728] During the eponomy of Liphur-ilu, the governor of Habruri, the king took the hand of Bêl [and became king of Babylonia].
[728/727]During the eponomy of Dur-Aššur, the governor of Tušhan, the king took the hand of Bêl; the city of Hi[...] was captured.
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[727/726] During the eponomy of Bêl-Harran-bêla-usur, the governor of Guzana, campaign against [...]. Šalmaneser [V] ascended the throne.
[726/725] During the eponomy of Marduk-bêla-usur, the governor of Amedi, the king stayed in the land.
[725/724] During the eponomy of Mahde, the governor of Nineveh, campaign against [...].
[724/723] During the eponomy of Aššur-išmanni, the governor of Kalizi, campaign against [...].
[723/722] During the eponomy of Šalmaneser, the king of Assyria, campaign against [...].
[722/721] During the eponomy of Inurta-ilaya, the commander in chief.
[721/720] During the eponomy of Nabû-taris, the governor of [...]ti.
[720/719] During the eponomy of Aššur-nirka-da'in, the governor of [...]ru.
[719/718] During the eponomy of Sargon [II], the king of Assyria entered [...].
[718/717] During the eponomy of Zeru-ibni, the governor of Rasappa, campaign against Tabal.
[717/716] During the eponomy of Tab-šar-Aššur, the chamberlain, Dur-Šarruken [the new capital of Assyria] was founded.
[716/715] During the eponomy of Tab-sil-Ešarra, the governor of Libbi-ali, campaign against Mannea.
[715/714] During the eponomy of Taklak-ana-bêli, the governor of Nisibis, governors were appointed.
[714/713] During the eponomy of Ištar-duri, the governor of Arrapha, campaign against Urartu and Musasi; [the statue of the god] Haldi was deported.
[713/712]During the eponomy of Aššur-bani, the governor of Kalhu, the nobles fought at Ellipi; the god [...] entered his new temple, to Musasir.
[712/711] During the eponomy of šarru-emuranni, the governor of Mazamua,the king stayed in the land.
[711/710] During the eponomy of Inurta-alik-pani, the governor of Si'immel, campaign against Mar'aš.
[710/709] During the eponomy of Šamaš-bêla-usur, the governor of Ahizuhina, campaign against Bit-zeri [against the Babylonian ruler Marduk-apla-iddina, who was defeated]; the king stayed in Kiš.
[709/708] During the eponomy of Mannu-ki-Aššur-le'i, the governor of Tille, Sargon took the hand of Bêl [and became king of Babylonia].
[708/707] During the eponomy of Šamaš-upahhir, the governor of Habruri, Kummuhu was captured; a governor was appointed.
[707/706] During the eponomy of Ša-Aššur-dubbu, the governor of Tušhan, the king returned from Babylon; the chief vizier, the nobles, the booty of Dur-Yakin was carried off; [...] Dur-Yakin was destroyed; in Tašrîtu, the twenty-second, the gods of Dur-Šarruken entered their temples.
[706/705]During the eponomy of Mutakkil-Aššur, the governor of Guzana, the king stayed in the land; the nobles were in Karalla; in Ajaru, the sixth, Dur-Šarruken was completed; [...] received.
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[705/704]During the eponomy of Nashru-Bêl, the governor of Amedi, the king marched on Tabal; against Gurdi, the Kulummaean, [...] the king was killed; the camp of the king of Assyria [...] In Abu, the twelfth, Sennacherib, the king [started his reign?].
[704/703]During the eponomy of Nabû-deni-epuš, the governor of Nineveh, to Larak and Sarrabanu; the palace of Kalizi was restored, in [...] the nobles afainst the Kulummaean.
[703/702] During the eponomy of Nuhšaya, the governor of Kalizi, campaign against [Babylonia?].
[702/701] During the eponomy of Nabû-le'i, the governor of Arbela, campaign against [Hirimma and Hararatum?].
[701/700] During the eponomy of Hananu, the governor of Til-Barsip, [...] from Halzi [...]
[700/699] During the eponomy of Metunu, the governor of Isana, Aššur-nadin-šumi, the son of Sennacherib, [became king of Babylonia?] of the palace, in the city [...], great cedar logs, alabaster in Ammananum [...], in Kapri-Dagili [...] for [...] the king [...].
[699/698] During the eponymy of Bêl-šarrani, governor of Kurba'il,
Broken off