Syrian Wars: series of conflicts between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic empires in the third and second centuries BCE; at stake was an area called Coele Syria, which is more or less identical to modern Israel, the Palestine territories, Lebanon, and southern Syria.
Course of events
- 205/204: The Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great and the Macedonian king Philip V, knowing that a dynastic crisis is approaching in the Ptolemaic empire, agree to divide its possessions outside Africa; revolt of Horwennefer in Egypt
- July or August 204: Death of Ptolemy IV Philopator; the queen-mother Arsinoe III is assassinated
- 202: The royal advisers Agathocles and Sosibius are replaced by Telepolemus, and - later - Aristomenes
- May 202: Outbreak of the Fifth Syrian War
- Philip expels the Ptolemaic garrisons from the Aegaen Sea, which results in a conflict with Pergamon and Rhodes
- 201: Rome is alarmed, and demands that Philip halts his aggression.
- 200: Antiochus occupies Coele Syria (battle of Panion); Rome declares war against Macedonia (which leaves the war against the Ptolemies) and orders both to keep their hands off Egypt, which is vital for Rome's food supply; the rebel Horwennefer changes his name into Ankhwennefer
- 199-197: Antiochus cancels his invasion of Egypt, and instead attacks Ptolemaic possessions in Cilicia
- 197: In the battle of Cynoscephalae the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus overcomes the Macedonians
- 197/196: Ptolemy V represses the insurrection in the Delta.
- 26 March 196: Traditional, native coronation of Ptolemy in Memphis; he accepts the surname Epiphanes, 'the god manifests himself'; Egyptian priests decree a divine cult for the young king (the text is known from the Rosetta Stone)
- 195: Peace with Antiochus III; Ptolemy announces to marry Antiochus' daughter Cleopatra Syra and accepts the loss of all possessions outside Egypt, except for Cyprus and Cyrenaica