Seleucid Kings

On this page, you will find a complete list of rulers of the Seleucid Empire, the largest of the kingdoms that succeeded the short-lived empire of Alexander the Great. Until quite recently, the chronology of the kings was essentially based on classical sources, but the publication of the Astronomical Diaries, other cuneiform sources, and studies of the number of coin dies, have generated a lot of new information.

Family tree of the Seleucids
Chronology of the later Seleucids

The dynasty can be divided into five sections. The main branch, indicated in yellow in the table below, started with Seleucus I Nicator (r.311-281), and remained essentially unchallenged until the revolt of Alexander Balas in 152. He and his sons, indicated in red, were rivals until 123. Their presence was a serious obstacle for the kings of the main line who had to cope with Parthian agression in the east; much territory was lost. 

Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII Grypus briefly reunited the remains of the Seleucid Empire, but the dynasty fell apart in two rival branches, a northern one (green in the table below) and a southern one (blue). Some other rulers are indicated in white. The chronology of these later Seleucid kings has recently be reevaluated by Oliver Hoover.

The almost perennial civil wars made the Seleucid Empire, which had once been the largest in the world, helpless against local revolts. In 74/73, the remains were taken over by Armenia, which lost them for years later; after a couple of years of independence, the last Seleucid ruler was overthrown by the Romans in 64 BCE.

Literature

Table of kings

Entire realm
Line of Alexander
Northern branch
Southern branch
Other
Seleucus I Nicator
1(?) June 311
-
September 281
Antiochus I Soter
September 281
-
2 June 261
Antiochus II Theos
2 June 261
-
early July 246
Seleucus II Callinicus
July/August 246
-
December 225
Seleucus III Keraunos (or Soter)
December 225
-
April-June 222
Antiochus III the Great
April-June 222
-
3 July 187
Seleucus IV Philopator
3 July 187
-
3 September 175
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
3 September 175
-
November/December 164
 
Antiochus V Eupator
November/December 164
-
after 29 October 162
 
Demetrius I Soter
before September/October 161
-
beginning of June 150
 
Alexander I Balas
summer 152
-
beginning of August 145
Demetrius II Nicator (first reign)
before 8 September 145
-
July/August 138
Antiochus VI Dionysus (or Epiphanes)
145/144
-
141/140
 
Diodotus Tryphon
141/140
-
after August 138
Antiochus VII Sidetes (or Euergetes)
July/August 138
-
after 20 May 129
Demetrius II Nicator (second reign)
first months of 129
-
after March 125
 
Alexander II Zabinas
129
-
123
 
Cleopatra Thea
125
 
Seleucus V
125
 
Cleopatra Thea and Antiochus VIII Grypus
125
-
121
Antiochus VIII Grypus
121
-
96
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
115
-
early 95
 
Demetrius III Eucaerus (or Philopator)
97/96
-
87
 
Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator
96
-
94
 
Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus
c.95
-
93/92
Philip I Philadelphus
c.95
-
c.75
Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator
early 95
-
c.88
 
Antiochus XII Dionysus
87
-
83/82
Tigranes II the Great of Armenia
74/73
-
69
 
Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
69
-
64
 
Philip II Philoromaeus
67/66
-
66/65