Arsacids

The Parthian or Arsacid Empire was the most enduring of the empires of the ancient Near East. After the Parni nomads had settled in Parthia and had built a small independent kingdom, they rose to power under king Mithradates the Great (r.171-138). The Parthian Empire occupied all of modern Iran, Iraq, and Armenia, parts of Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, and - for brief periods - territories in Pakistan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine. The end of this loosely organized empire came in 224, when the last Arsacid king was defeated by one of his vassals, the Persians of the Sasanian dynasty.

The chronology of the Arsacid kings of the Parthian Empire is less well-understood than, for example, the sequence of Seleucid and Ptolemaic kings or the emperors of Rome. This table is based on E.J. Bickermann, Chronology of the Ancient World (1980²); on information from Parthia.com; and on the researches by F. Assar as published on Iranica-L.

247-211

Arsaces I

211-185

Arsaces II

 
185-170

Arsaces III Phriapatius

 
170-168

Arsaces IV

 
168-165

Arsaces V, Phraates I

 
165-132

Arsaces VI, Mithradates I the Great

132-126

Arsaces VII, Phraates II

126

Arsaces VIII, Bagasis

 
126-122

Arsaces IX, Artabanus I

122-121

Arsaces X

 
121-91

Arsaces XI, Mithradates II

93/92-70/69

Arsaces XII, Sinatruces

91-87

Arsaces XIII, Gotarzes I

(rebel king)

87-80/79

Arsaces XIV, Mithradates III

 
80-75

Arsaces XV, Orodes I

75-62/61

Arsaces XVI

 
70/69-58/57

Arsaces XVII, Phraates III

58/57-54

Arsaces XVIII, Mithradates IV

54-38

Arsaces XIX, Orodes II

41-38

Pacorus I

(co-ruler)

 
38-2

Phraates IV

29-27

Tiridates I 

(rebel king)

2 BCE - 4 CE

Phraataces ("little Phraates")

c. 6 

Orodes III

8-12

Vonones I

10-38

Artabanus II

35

Phraates V

(pro-Roman rebel king)

 
36-37

Tiridates II

(pro-Roman rebel king)

 
29?-47?

Vardanes I

 
29?-51

Gotarzes II

50-56

Sanabares

(rebel king)

 
51

Vonones II

51-78

Vologases I

 
55-58

Vardanes II

(rebel king)

 
77-80

Vologases II

78-105

Pacorus II

 
80-90

Artabanus III

(rebel king)

105-147

Vologases III

108-129

Osroes I

(co-ruler)

116

Parthamaspates

(pro-Roman rebel king)

c.140

Mithradates V

 
147-191

Vologases IV

c.190

Osroes II

(rebel king)

 
191-208

Vologases V

208-218

Vologases VI

216-224

Artabanus IV