Imperial eagle, on a small arch in the Theodosian Wall, directly north
of the Golden Gate in Constantinople.
the continuation of the Roman Empire in the Greek-speaking, eastern part
of the Mediterranean. Christian in nature, it was perennially at war
with the Muslims, Flourishing during the reign of the Macedonian
emperors, its demise was the consequence of attacks by Seljuk Turks,
Crusaders, and Ottoman Turks.
- Peter van Deun, Byzantium. Een spektakel van kunst en cultuur (2010)
- Fred M. Donner, Muhammad and the Believers at the Origins of Islam (2010)
- Judith Herrin, Byzantium. The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire (2009)
- Michel Kaplan, Tout l'or de Byzance (1991)
- Noemi Lévy, De Byzance à Istanbul. Un port pour deux continents (2000)
- E.N. Luttwak, The Grand Strategy of the Byzantine Empire (2009)
- Thomas F. Matthews, Byzantium. From Antiquity to the Renaissance (2010)
- J.J. Norwich, A History of Byzantium (1988-1995, three volumes; summary in one volume, 1997)