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Small bust of Caligula, Palazzo Massimo alle terme, Roma (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering.
Small bust of Caligula (Palazzo
Massimo alle terme, Roma)
Caligula: emperor of the Roman world (37-41).


  • 31 August 12 CE: Gaius Caesar Germanicus
  • Autumn 14: nickname Caligula ('soldier's boot') 
  • 18 March 37: Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus 
  • 24 January 41: murdered by soldiers
Successor of: Tiberius


  • father: Germanicus
  • mother: Agrippina Maior
  • married to: Junia Claudilla, Orestilla, Lollia Paulina, Milona Caesonia
  • child: Julia Drusilla

Early career:

  • 12 Born in Antium
  • 14-17 With Germanicus in the Rhineland, where soldiers call him 'Caligula'
  • 29 Funeral speech for Livia
  • 30 To Capri
  • 33 Quaestor

Main deeds:

  • 37 Consul suffectus; succeeds Tiberius; falls ill; Herod Agrippa made king
  • Execution of Tiberius Gemellus
  • 38 Trip to Sicily; September: pogrom in Alexandria; fall and death of praetorian prefect Macro, who is succeeded by Cassius Chaerea
  • 39 Consul II (with Lucius Apronius Caesianus); conspiracy of Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus
  • 39/40 Stay in Lyon
  • 40 Consul III (with Gaius Laecanius Bassus); Visit to the North Sea near Praetorium Agrippinae (more...); return to Rome; ovatio; murder of Ptolemy of Mauretania; riots in Judaea
  • 41 Consul IV (with Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus); assassinated by Cassius Chaerea
  • Damnatio memoriae
Ancient-Warfare.com, the online home of Ancient Warfare magazine
Inscription from a wine barrel, mentioning G[aius] Cae[sar] Aug[ustus] Ger[manicus], found at Vechten. From H. Sarfatij e.a., In discussion with the past (1999).
Inscription from a wine barrel,
mentioning G[aius] Cae[sar]
Aug[ustus] Ger[manicus] (from  H. Sarfatij et al., In discussion with the past, 1999; !!!)

New legions: XV Primigenia; XXII Primigenia

Buildings: Temple of Augustus; Circus of Caligula (Vatican); new aqueducts for Rome

Succeeded by: Claudius

Contemporary events:

  • 39 Death of Seneca the Elder


This brief article has been written to offer background information
to the real articles on Livius.Org. One day, this webpage will be
improved. A list of completed articles can be found here.

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