Cleopatra III (Württembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart).
III: queen of the Ptolemaic
Empire, ruled from 116
to 101, first with Ptolemy
IX Soter Lathyros, later with Ptolemy
Note: Cleopatra's military commanders were both Jewish, Chelkias and Ananias, sons of the high priest Onias of Heliopolis
Born as daughter of Ptolemy
VI Philometor and his sister Cleopatra II.
145: Ptolemy VI is killed in action.
8 August 145: Ptolemy
VIII Physcon becomes master of Egypt; he marries his
II, widow of the former king Ptolemy VI Philometor.
Ptolemy VIII marries his niece and stepdaughter Cleopatra
birth of Cleopatra
Birth of Ptolemy
The two Cleopatras, mother and daughter, quarrel. An influential
courtier named Galestes attempts a coup, unsuccessfully.
To strengthen their position, Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III seek
support from the native population.
Birth of Cleopatra
V Selene and Tryphaena
November: Outbreak of civil war between Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra II.
Cleopatra III appears to have stayed on Cyprus.
autumn: Cleopatra II controls Alexandria.
Ptolemy is on Cyprus.
spring: Ptolemy returns to Egypt and defeats his opponents.
Cleopatra III returns to Egypt too.
- 124/123: Tryphaena marries
June 116: Death of Ptolemy VIII, who is succeeded by Cleopatra
III. She wants to rule with Ptolemy
but the Alexandrines force her to accept Ptolemy IX Soter, who is
fourteen years old, as co-ruler. Ptolemy X receives an honorary
position as general on Cyprus.
tries to gain support from the native population; she presents herself
as the goddess Isis and the goddess Maat.
110-February 109: Ptolemy X briefly replaces Ptolemy IX as co-ruler
108: Ptolemy X briefly replaces Ptolemy IX, but this second attempt is
a failure too, and Ptolemy IX returns
108: Ptolemy X briefly replaces Ptolemy IX; at the same time,
Cleopatra's stepson Ptolemy Apion becomes ruler of the Cyrenaica.
107: Ptolemy IX flees to Cyprus; Ptolemy X Alexander becomes king.
Cleopatra replaces Ptolemy X as priestess of Alexander
- 103: Antiochus
IX Cyzicenus supports the Samarians
against the Hasmonaean
king John Hyrcanus of Judaea;
Ptolemy IX supports Antiochus, hoping that Judaea will be a first step
to a return to Egypt.
X Alexander invades Judaea, reaches Damascus, and returns
February 102: Cleopatra III defeats Ptolemy IX Soter near Pelusium
October 101: Ptolemy X Alexander orders the killing of Cleopatra and
continues as sole ruler
Succeeded by: Ptolemy