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settlement of Roman citizens. Originally, coloniae were founded
in enemy territory; later, colonia became a honorific title.
However, the mountain tribes broke through in the confused years after the fall of the Roman monarchy. Republican leaders like Lucius Junius Brutus and Publius Valerius Publicola were unable to turn the tide. In the first years of the fifth century, a final attempt was made to cope with the situation: Signia was reinforced, Velitrae was founded, followed by Norba a couple of years later. These towns were built in the hills to the east of Latium, as a line of defense. It turned out to be insufficient, however: in the first quarter of the fifth century, southern Latium was lost to capable Volscian generals like Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus. All colonies were captured.
Although the first experiences with the founding of colonies were bad,
the Romans continued this practice. When they conquered Antium (in 467
according to the Varronian
chronology), they refounded the town as a colonia. Many similar
foundations were to follow.
Not all colonies were new foundations. Often, the Roman government decided
to settle people in a newly-conquered city. An early example is Antium,
but younger settlements like Paestum (273) and Pyrgi (191) are no less
representative. The native population was sometimes expelled, but could
also remain where they were.
The first coloniae
In the last decades of the second century, Roman politics were dominated by the populares and optimates, i.e. by politicians who preferred to propose bills in the People's Assembly and by politicians who preferred the Senate. If the members of the first group wanted to be successful, they had to propose reforms, but it was not easy to enforce the new laws. In the last years of the second century, tribune Lucius Appuleius Saturninus concluded that he needed an army to overcome this difficulty.
Of course, this was illegal, but Appuleius proposed a bill that gave land in certain colonies to the veterans of the army of Rome's leading general, Gaius Marius. In case Appuleius' opponents obstructed his reform bills, the tribune could easily request the assistance of the veterans. The Senate opposed this idea, because Appuleius would create a state within the state. As consul, Marius had to intervene, and Appuleius was killed (100 BCE).
Nevertheless, later military leaders like Sulla and Julius
Caesar often founded colonies for their veterans. An example is Pompeii,
which was resettled with veterans of Sulla in 80 and was henceforth known
as Colonia Veneria Cornelia Pompeianorum. Faesulae (immediately
north of Florence) is also representative for the colonies of this age.
Marc Antony, and Lepidus continued this policy, which was also continued
when Octavian had become sole ruler of the Roman world. The new colonies
were usually situated in the provinces
of the empire: Lyon in France, Augst in Switzerland, Barcelona in Spain,
Syracuse on Sicily,
Dürres in Albania, Patras in Greece, Cnossus on Crete, Berytus in Lebanon.
And so on.
Later emperors are also known to have founded colonies, and several have become really famous. The name of Cologne in Germania Inferior still reminds one of its ancient name Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, "Claudius' Colony near the Altar of the Agrippinenses" . However, this was an existing city, and the colonization was in fact nothing but a renaming and an increase in status. A comparable case is Lepcis Magna, officially called Colonia Ulpia Traiana Lepcitaniorum after it had received the colonial status from Trajan.
This was not uncommon during the empire. Another example is Nisibis. One of the latest cities to become a Roman colony was Nicomedia (modern Izmit), which received this honorific title from the emperor Diocletian (284-305). About 400 towns are known to have possessed the rank of colonia.
During the empire, colonies were showcases of Roman culture and examples of the Roman way of life. The native population of the provinces could see how they were expected to live. Because of this function, the promotion of a town to the status of colonia civium Romanorum implied that all citizens received full citizen rights and dedicated a temple to the Capitoline triad: Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, the deities venerated in the temple of Jupiter Best and Biggest on the Capitol in Rome.