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Constantius II


Head of Constantius II. Centrale Montemarini, Rome (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering.
Constantius II (Centrale Montemarini, Roma)
Constantius II: emperor of the Roman world (337-361).

Names:
7 August 317: Flavius Julius Constantius 
8 November 324: Flavius Julius Constantius Caesar 
9 September 337: Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus 
3 November 361: natural death

Successor of: Constantine I the Great

Relatives:

Main deeds:
  • 324 Proclaimed caesar
  • 326 Consul (with Constantine I the Great VII)
  • 332 Constantinus II defeats the Visigoths; Constantius accepts the title Germanicus Maximus
  • 334 Campaign against the Sarmatians
  • 337 Succeeds his father as ruler in the east; his brothers Constantinus II and Constans receive the west and Italy
  • 338 Meets the other rulers in Viminacium; Constans victorious against the Sarmatians; accepts the titles Sarmaticus Maximus; the Sasanian king Shapur II invades Mesopotamia and occupies Armenia; Constantius to Syria; accepts the title Persicus
  • 339 Consul II (with Constans)
  • 340 Constantinus II attacks Constans, but is defeated and killed
  • 342 Consul III (with Constans II)
  • 343 Battle of Singara; Constantius accepts the title Adiabenicus Maximus
  • 346 Consul IV (with Constans III)
  • 348 Constantius defeats the Persians in the Second battle of Singara
  • 350 Revolt of Magnentius; Constans killed; revolt of Vetranio; revolt of Nepotianus; Shapur II besieges Nisibis; death of Nepotianus; Vetranio resigns
  • 351 Constantius Gallus made caesar; marries to Constantina (daughter of Constantine I the Great)
  • 351 Battle of Mursa; Magnentius defeated
  • 352 Consul V (with Gallus); Constantius in Milan
  • 353 Consul VI (with Gallus II); suicide of Magnentius; Constantius is sole ruler of the Roman empire
  • 354 Consul VII (with Gallus III); war against the Alamans; execution of Gallus Caesar; pagan temples closed
  • 355 Military operations in Raetia; revolt of Silvanus in Cologne; he is immediately killed; Julianus proclaimed caesar
  • 356 Consul VIII (with Julian); pagan cults forbidden; Julian liberates Cologne; war against the Alamans; death of Vetranio
  • 357 Consul IX (with Julian II); Constantius' state visit to Rome; Julian defeats the Alamans near Argentoratum and campaigns beyond the Rhine
  • 358 Fruitless negotiations with Shapur II; Constantius successfully campaigns against the Sarmatians, Quadi, and Limigantes; Barbatio repels an attack of the Juthungi on Raetia; Julian attacks the Franks along the Meuse
  • 359 Julian again across the Rhine; fall of Barbatio; Constantius' second campaign against the Limigantes; the Persians capture Amida; treason trials
  • 360 Consul X (with Julian III); Shapur II invades Mesopotamia, takes Singara and Bezabde; Constantius to the east, fails to recapture Bezabde; Julian proclaimed emperor, attacks the Franks
  • 361 Constantius in Mesopotamia, prepares war against Julian; dies during his march to the west
Buildings: New legions: I Flavia Constantia; I Flavia Pacis; II Flavia Virtutis; III Flavia Salutis

Contemporary events:

  • 343/344 Council of Serdicca
  • 337 Recall of Athanasius
  • 339 Second exile of Athanasius
  • 346 Athanasius returns to Alexandria
  • 356 Athanasius expelled from Alexandria; the relics of Timothy brought to Constantinople
  • 354 Birth of Augustine
  • 356 Death of Anthony, the desert monk
  • 357 Georgios made bishop of Alexandria; the relics of Andrew and Luke brought to Constantinople
  • 358 An earthquake destroys Nicomedia; Georgios leaves Alexandria
  • 359 Council of Ariminum; food riot at Rome
Succeeded by: Julianus Apostata
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