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Roman emperors: the first century

first century
second century
Gaul   :   third century   :   Palmyra
fourth century
fifth century (West)  :  fifth century (East)
Bust of Julius Caesar. Musei Vaticani, Roma (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering. Julius Caesar

13 July 100 BCE: Gaius Julius Caesar 
10 January 49: rebelled against the Senate
9 August 48: sole ruler
15 March 44: murdered by senators

Picture: Musei Vaticani, Roma  (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Augustus as high priest. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, Mérida (Spain). Photo Marco Prins.
Augustus

23 September 63 BCE: Gaius Octavius
8 May 44: Gaius Julius Caesar 

(Historians often call him Octavianus, a title he never used.)
November 40: Imperator Caesar Divi filius 
2 September 31 BCE: sole ruler
16 January 27: Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus
19 August 14 CE: natural death

Picture: Museo Nacional de Arte Romano, Mérida (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Tiberius. British Museum, London (Britain). Photo Jona Lendering. Tiberius

16 November 42 BCE: Tiberius Claudius Nero
19 August 14 CE: Imperator Tiberius Caesar Augustus 
16 March 37: natural death

Picture: British Museum, London (biography by Suetonius)

Small bust of Caligula, Palazzo Massimo alle terme, Roma (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering. Caligula

31 August 12 CE: Gaius Caesar Germanicus
Summer 14: nickname Caligula ('soldier's boot') 
18 March 37: Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus 
24 January 41: murdered by soldiers

Picture: Palazzo Massimo alle terme, Roma (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Claudius. British Museum, London (Britain). Photo Marco Prins. Claudius

1 August 10 BCE: Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus 
25 January 41: Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
13 October 54: poisoned 

Refused title: Britannicus (43) 

Picture: British Museum, London (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Nero. Glyptothek München (Germany). Photo Marco Prins. Nero

15 December 37: Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus 
25 February 50: Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus 
13 October 54: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus 
September (?) 66: Imperator Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
9 June 68: suicide

Picture: Glyptothek Munich (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Galba. Musei Vaticani, Rome (Italy). Photo Marco Prins. Galba

24 December 3 BCE: Servius Sulpicius Galba 
8 June 68: Servius Galba Imperator Caesar Augustus
15 June 69: lynched by soldiers

Picture: Musei Vaticani, Rome (biography by Suetonius)

Bust, believed to represent Vitellius. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Jona Lendering. Vitellius

7 September 12 (?): Aulus Vitellius 
2 January 69: Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator 
18 July 69: Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Imperator Augustus 
20 December 69: lynched by soldiers

Nickname: Spintria

Picture: Louvre, Paris (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Otho, Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering. Otho

28 April 32: Marcus Salvius Otho 
15 January 69: Imperator Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus (Nero?) 
16 April 69: suicide

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma; ©** (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Vespasian from Narona. Archaeological museum of Vid (Croatia). Photo Marco Prins. Vespasian

17 November 9: Titus Flavius Vespasianus 
1 July 69: Imperator Titus Flavius Vespasianus Caesar
23 June 79: natural death

Picture: Archaeological museum, Vid (biography by Suetonius)


Julius Sabinus

Year of birth unknown
Spring 70: Emperor of the 'Gallic empire'
Summer 70: into hiding
79: executed

Bust of Titus. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins. Titus

30 December 39: Titus Flavius Vespasianus 
July 69: Titus Caesar Vespasianus 
2 September 70: Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasianus 
24 June 79: Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus
13 September 81: natural death

Picture: Louvre, Paris (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Domitian. Museo Arqueológico, Sevilla (Spain). Photo Marco Prins. Domitian

24 October 51: Titus Flavius Domitianus 
14 September 81: Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus
83: Imperator Caesar Domitianus Germanicus Augustus
18 September 96: murdered by courtiers

Picture: Museo Arqueológico, Sevilla (biography by Suetonius)

Bust of Nerva. Palazzo Massimo, Roma (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering. Nerva

30 November 30: Marcus Cocceius Nerva 
18 September 96: Imperator Nerva Caesar Augustus 
97: Imperator Nerva Germanicus Caesar Augustus 
27 (?) January 98: natural death

Picture: Palazzo Massimo, Roma

Bronze portrait of the emperor Trajan. Glyptothek, München (Germany). Photo Marco Prins. Trajan

18 September 53: Marcus Ulpius Trajanus Crinitus 
October 97: Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus 
28 January 98: Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus 
Germanicus (97), Dacicus (102), Optimus (114), Parthicus (116) 
7 August 117: natural death

Picture: Glyptothek, München



first century
second century
Gaul   :   third century   :   Palmyra
fourth century
fifth century (West)  :  fifth century (East)

Literature

Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle. Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie (1990 Darmstadt)