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Roman emperors: the third century

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second century
Gaul   :   third century   :   Palmyra
fourth century
fifth century (West)  :  fifth century (East)
Bust of Septimius Severus. Archaeological Museum, Thessaloniki (Greece). Photo Marco Prins. Septimius Severus

11 April 145: Lucius Septimius Severus 
9 April 193: Imperator Caesar Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus 
Arabicus (195), Adiabenicus (195), Pius (195), Parthicus (198), Britannicus (210) 
4 February 211: natural death

Picture: Archaeological Museum, Thessaloniki (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Caracalla. Antikensammlung, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering.
Caracalla

4 April 186: Lucius Septimius Bassianus 
Nicnames: Caracalla, Tarautas 
4 April 196: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Caesar
Autumn 197: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus 
4 February 211: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Pius Augustus 
Britannicus maximus (210), Parthicus maximus (211), Arabicus maximus (211), Adiabenicus maximus (211) Magnus (213), Germanicus maximus (213)
8 April 217: murdered by Macrinus

Picture:Altes Museum, Berlin (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Geta. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins. Geta

27 May 189: Publius Septimius Geta 
Autumn 197: Publius Septimius Geta Caesar 
Autumn 209: Imperator Caesar Publius Septimius Geta Augustus
4 February 211: Imperator Caesar Publius Septimius Geta Augustus
19 December 211: murdered by Caracalla

co-emperor of Caracalla

Picture: Louvre, Paris (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Macrinus. Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). Photo Marco Prins. Macrinus

±165: Marcus Opellius Macrinus 
11 April 217: Imperator Caesar Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus 
June 218: executed

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Gold piece of Diadumenianus. Diadumenianus

14 September 208: Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus
First half May 217: Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus Caesar Severus
May 218: Imperator Caesar Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus Augustus
June 218: executed

co-emperor of Macrinus

Picture: ©!! (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Heliogabalus. Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). Photo Marco Prins.
Heliogabalus

±203: Varius Avitus Bassianus
16 May 218:  Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus 
11 March 222: lynched by soldiers

Other title: Sacerdos amplissimus dei invicti solis Elagabali

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Severus Alexander from Ryakia. Museum of Dion (Greece). Photo Jona Lendering.
Severus Alexander

1 October 209: Marcus Bassianus Alexianus 
26 (?) June 221: Marcus Aurelius Alexander Caesar 
14 March 222: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander 
230: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Magnus
February 235: lynched by soldiers

Picture: Museum of Dion (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Maximinus Thrax. Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering.
Maximinus the Thracian

±172: Gaius Julius Maximinus (?)
February 235: Imperator Caesar Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Augustus 
236: Imperator Caesar Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus Germanicus maximus Augustus
April 238: lynched by soldiers

Nickname: Thrax 

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Gordian I. Bardo Museum, Tunis (Tunisia). Photo Jan van Vliet. Gordian I

±158: Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus 
1 (?) January 238: Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus
20 (?) January 238: suicide

Picture: Bardo Museum, Tunis (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Coin of Gordian II. Limesmuseum, Aalen (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Gordian II

±192: Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus 
1 (?) January 238: Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus 
20 (?) January 238: killed in action

co-emperor of Gordian I

Picture: Limesmuseum, Aalen (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Balbinus. Archaeological museum of Selçuk (Turkey). Photo Marco Prins. Balbinus

date of birth and full name unknown
February 238: Imperator Caesar Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus Augustus
May 238: lynched by soldiers

co-emperor of Pupienus

Picture: Archaeological museum, Selçuk (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Pupienus. Bust at the Louvre. Photo Marco Prins. Pupienus

±164: Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus 
February 238: Imperator Caesar Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus
May 238: lynched by soldiers

co-emperor of Balbinus

Picture: Louvre, Paris (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Gordian III from Niederbieber. Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn (Germany). Photo Marco Prins. Gordian III

20 January 225 or 226: Marcus Antonius Gordianus 
1 February 238: Marcus Antonius Gordianus Caesar 
9 May 238: Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Felix Augustus 
February (?) 244: killed in action

Picture: Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Statue of Philip the Arab. Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). Philippus the Arab

±204(?): Marcus Julius Philippus 
February 244: Imperator Caesar Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus
Parthicus Adiabenicus (244), Persicus maximus (244), Parthicus maximus (244)
September 249: killed in action

nickname: Arabs 

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma

Bust of Decius. Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering. Decius

±195: Gaius Messius Quintus Decius Valerianus 
June 249: Imperator Gaius Messius Quintus Decius Valerianus 
September 249:  Imperator Caesar Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius Augustus
Dacicus maximus (250), Germanicus maximus (250)
June 251: killed in action

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma

Bust of Hostilianus. Detail of a replica of the Ludovisi Sarcophagus, Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Hostilianus

Unknown date of birth: Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus
September 250: Caesar; Princeps Iuventutis
June 251: Imperator Caesar Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus Augustus
July 251: death of natural causes (plague)

son of Decius; adopted by Trebonian

Picture: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz

Bust of Trebonianus Gallus. Archaeological Museum, Antakya (Turkey). Photo Marco Prins. Trebonian the Gaul

±206: Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus 
June 251: Imperator Caesar Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus Augustus
August 253: lynched by soldiers

Picture: Archaeological museum, Antakya

Coin of Aemilianus. Archaeological Museum of Izmir (Turkey). Photo Jona Lendering. Aemilian

207: Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus 
August 253: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus Augustus
October 253: lynched by soldiers

Picture: Archaeological Museum of Izmir

Coin of Valerian. Archaeological Museum of Izmir (Turkey). Photo Jona Lendering. Valerian

±200: Publius Licinius Valerianus 
August 253: Imperator Caesar Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus
254: Imperator Caesar Publius Licinius Valerianus Germanicus maximus Augustus
June 260: taken captive by the Persians
262: died in captivity

Picture: Archaeological Museum of Izmir (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Gallienus. Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis, Brussel (Belgium). Photo Marco Prins. Gallienus

±213: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus
September 253: Publius Licinius Gallienus Caesar Augustus 
October 253: Imperator Caesar Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (254), Dacicus maximus (257)
September/October 268: murdered by soldiers

Picture: Koninklijke Musea voor Kunst en Geschiedenis, Brussel (biography  from the Historia Augusta)

Claudius II Gothicus. Coin from the Archaeological Museum of Antalya (Turkey). Photo Jona Lendering. Claudius II Gothicus

10 May 214:  full name unknown 
September/October 268: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Claudius Augustus
Germanicus maximus (268), Gothicus maximus (269), Parthicus maximus (270) 
First half September 270: natural death

Picture: Archaeological Museum of Antalya (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Coin of Quintillus. Quintillus

Date of birth and full name unknown (brother of Claudius II Gothicus)
First half September 270: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus
Second half September 270: lynched by soldiers

Picture: ©!!

Coin of Aurelian at the Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Aurelian

9 September 214:  Lucius Domitius Aurelianus 
September 270: Imperator Caesar Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (271), Goticus maximus (272), Dacicus maximus (272), Parthicus (Persicus?) maximus (272), Arabicus maximus (272), Palmyrenicus maximus (272), Armeniacus (?), Adiabenicus (?), Carpicus maximus (273), Restitutor orbis (274)
September 275: murdered by his secretary

Picture: Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Coin of Tacitus. Archaeological Museum of Burdur (Turkey). Photo Jona Lendering. Tacitus

±200: Marcus Claudius Tacitus 
December 275: Imperator Caesar Marcus Claudius Tacitus Augustus 
276: Imperator Caesar Marcus Claudius Tacitus Gothicus maximus Augustus
July 276: uncertain cause of death

Picture: Archaeological Museum of Burdur (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Coin of Florian. Bode-Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Florian

full name and date of birth unknown (brother of Tacitus)
July 276: Imperator Gaius Marcus Annius Florianus Augustus
September 276: lynched by soldiers

Picture: Bode-Museum, Berlin

Bust of Probus. Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). Photo Marco Prins. Probus

19 August 232: Marcus Aurelius Probus 
July 276: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus 
Gothicus maximus (277), Germanicus maximus (279), Parthicus Persicus maximus (279), Medicus maximus (279)
October 282: lynched by soldiers

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Coin of Carus. Carus

±224: Marcus Aurelius Carus
September 282: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (283), Persicus Parthicus maximus (283)
August 283: struck by lightning

Picture: ©!! (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Carinus. Centrale Montemartini, Rome (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering. Carinus

±250: Marcus Aurelius Carinus
November 282: Marcus Aurelius Carinus Caesar 
Spring 283: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Carinus Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (283), Persicus maximus (283), Britannicus maximus (284)
September 285: killed by an officer

co-emperor of Numerian

Picture: Centrale Montemartini, Roma (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Statue of Numerian. Numerian

±254: Marcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus
November 282: Marcus Aurelius Numerianus Caesar 
August 283: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Numerianus Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (283), Persicus maximus (283), Britannicus maximus (284)
November 284: murdered by his father-in law

co-emperor of Carinus

Picture: ©!!! (biography from the Historia Augusta)

Bust of Diocletian. Arkeoloji Müzesi, İstanbul (Turkey). Photo Marco Prins. Diocletian

22 December 245: Diocles 
20 November 284: Imperator Caesar, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus 
1 April 286: Imperator Caesar Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus Iovius 
Germanicus maximus (285), Sarmaticus maximus (285), Gothicus maximus (293), Persicus maximus (295), Britannicus maximus (296?), Carpicus maximus (297?), Armenicus maximus (298), Medicus maximus (298), Adiabenicus maximus (298)
1 May 305: resigned
3 December 313: natural death

co-emperor of Maximian; ruled in the east

Picture: Arkeoloji Müzesi, İstanbul

Maximian. Statue from Utica. Rijksmuseum van oudheden, Leiden (Netherlands). Photo Jona Lendering. Maximian (first time)

21 July 250 (?): full name unknown 
1 April 286: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus Herculius 
Germanicus maximus (287), Sarmaticus maximus (289), Gothicus maximus (293), Persicus maximus (295), Britannicus maximus (296?), Carpicus maximus (297?), Armenicus maximus (298), Medicus maximus (298), Adiabenicus maximus (298)
1 May 305: resigned
December 306: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus
November 308: forced to resign
July 310: taken captive; suicide

co-emperor of Diocletian; ruled in the west

Picture: Rijksmuseum van oudheden, Leiden



first century
second century
Gaul   :   third century   :   Palmyra
fourth century
fifth century (West)  :  fifth century (East)

Literature

Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle. Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie (1990 Darmstadt)