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Roman emperors: the fourth century

first century
second century
Gaul   :   third century   :   Palmyra
fourth century
fifth century (West)  :  fifth century (East)
Bust of Diocletian. Arkeoloji Müzesi, İstanbul (Turkey). Photo Marco Prins. Diocletian

22 December 245: Diocles 
20 November 284: Imperator Caesar, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus 
1 April 286: Imperator Caesar Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus Iovius 
Germanicus maximus (285), Sarmaticus maximus (285), Gothicus maximus (293), Persicus maximus (295), Britannicus maximus (296?), Carpicus maximus (297?), Armenicus maximus (298), Medicus maximus (298), Adiabenicus maximus (298)
1 May 305: resigned
3 December 313: natural death

co-emperor of Maximian; ruled in the east

Picture: Arkeoloji Müzesi, İstanbul

Maximian. Statue from Utica. Rijksmuseum van oudheden, Leiden (Netherlands). Photo Jona Lendering. Maximian (first time)

21 July 250 (?): full name unknown 
1 April 286: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus Herculius 
Germanicus maximus (287), Sarmaticus maximus (289), Gothicus maximus (293), Persicus maximus (295), Britannicus maximus (296?), Carpicus maximus (297?), Armenicus maximus (298), Medicus maximus (298), Adiabenicus maximus (298)
1 May 305: resigned
December 306: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus
November 308: forced to resign
July 310: taken captive; suicide

Picture: Rijksmuseum van oudheden, Leiden

Bust of Constantius Chlorus. Altes Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Constantius I Chlorus

31 March 250: Julius Constantius 
1 March 293: Flavius Valerius Constantius Caesar Herculius 
1 May 305: Imperator Caesar Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantius 
Germanicus maximus (293), Gothicus maximus (293), Sarmaticus maximus (294), Persicus maximus (295?), Britannicus maximus (296?), Carpicus maximus (297?), Medicus maximus (298), Adiabenicus maximus (298) 
25 July 306: natural death

Nickname: Chlorus ('the pale one')
co-emperor of Galerius; ruled in the west

Picture: Altes Museum, Berlin

Bust of Galerius. Galerius

±255: Maximinus (?) 
21 May 293: Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Caesar Iovius 
1 May 305: Imperator Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus
Germanicus maximus (293), Gothicus maximus (293), Aegyptiacus maximus (294), Thebaicus maximus (294), Sarmaticus maximus (294), Persicus maximus (295?), Britannicus maximus (296?), Carpicus maximus (297?), Medicus maximus (298), Adiabenicus maximus (298) 
May 311: natural death

co-emperor of Constantius I Chlorus; ruled in the east

Picture: ©!!!

Coin of Severus II. Severus

date of birth and real name unknown 
1 May 305: Flavius Valerius Severus Caesar 
August 306: Imperator Severus Augustus
April 307: resigned
16 September 307: murdered

Picture: ©!!

Head of Constantine I the Great. Musei Capitolini, Rome (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering. Constantine the Great

27 February 272: Gaius Flavius Valerius Constantinus 
25 July 306: Flavius Valerius Constantinus Caesar Herculius 
Summer 307: Imperator Constantinus Augustus 
October 29, 312: Imperator Constantinus Maximus Augustus
Persicus maximus (312), Germanicus maximus (313), Sarmaticus maximus (313), Britannicus maximus (314?), Adiabenicus maximus (315?), Medicus maximus (315?), Gothicus maximus (315?), Cappadocicus maximus (318), Arabicus maximus (318), Armenicus maximus (318), Dacicus maximus (336)

22 May 337: natural death

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma

Bust of Maxentius. Museum Dresden (Germany). Photo Marco Prins. Maxentius

±278: Marcus Valerius Maxentius 
28 October 306: Imperator Maxentius 
April 307: Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus Herculius
28 October 312: kiled in action

ruled in Italy

Picture: Museum Dresden

Maximian. Statue from Utica. Rijksmuseum van oudheden, Leiden (Netherlands). Photo Jona Lendering. Maximian (second time)

21 July 250 (?): full name unknown 
1 April 286: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus Herculius
Germanicus maximus (287), Sarmaticus maximus (289), Gothicus maximus (293), Persicus maximus (295), Britannicus maximus (296?), Carpicus maximus (297?), Armenicus maximus (298), Medicus maximus (298), Adiabenicus maximus (298)
1 May 305: resigned
December 306: Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Augustus
November 308: forced to resign
July 310: taken captive; suicide

Picture: ©!!

Coin of Licinius. Bode-Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Licinius

±265; real name unknown 
11 November 308:  Imperator Caesar Gaius Valerius Licinianus Licinius Augustus Iovius
Germanicus maximus (310), Sarmaticus maximus (310)
19 September 324: resigned
Spring 325: executed

Picture: Bode-Museum, Berlin

Coin of Maximinus Daia. Maximinus Daia

20 November 270(??): real name unknown 
1 May 305: Galerius Valerius Maximinus Caesar Iovius 
1 May 310: Imperator Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximinus Augustus
Persicus (312), Sarmaticus (313), Germanicus (313) 
August 313: natural death

nickname: Daia 

Picture: ©!!

Coin of Constantine II. Bode-Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Constantine II

7 Augustus 316: Flavius Claudius Constantinus 
1 March 317: declared caesar
9 September 337: Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus 
Alamannicus maximus (328), Germanicus maximus (338?), Sarmaticus maximus 
Early April 340: killed in action

Picture: Bode-Museum, Berlin

Bust of Constans. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins. Constans

320 or 323: Flavius Constans 
25 December 333: Flavius Constans Caesar
9 September 337: Flavius Claudius Constans Augustus 
338: Flavius Claudius Constans Sarmaticus Augustus
April 340: Flavius Claudius Constans Maximus Victor ac Triumphator Augustus
18 January 350: murdered by courtiers

Picture: Louvre, Paris

Head of Constantius II. Centrale Montemarini, Rome (Italy). Photo Jona Lendering. Constantius II

7 August 317: Flavius Julius Constantius 
8 November 324: Flavius Julius Constantius Caesar 
9 September 337: Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus 
Germanicus maximus, Alamannicus maximus, Gothicus maximus (332), Sarmaticus (337), Persicus (338), Adiabenicus maximus (343) 
3 November 361: natural death

Picture: Centrale Montemartini, Roma

Coin of Magnentius. Bode-Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Magnentius

±303: Magnus Magnentius 
18 January 350: Imperator Caesar Magnus Magnentius Augustus
10 August 353: suicide

Picture: Bode-Museum, Berlin

Bust of Julian, from Athens. National Archaeological Museum, Athens (Greece). Photo Jona Lendering.
Julian the Apostate

May 331: Flavius Julianus 
6 November 355: Flavius Julianus Caesar 
February 360: Flavius Claudius Julianus Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (360), Alamannicus maximus (360), Francicus maximus (360), Sarmaticus maximus
26 June 363: killed in action

nickname: Apostata ("the apostate")

Picture: National Archaeological Museum, Athens

Coin of Jovian. Jovian

331: Jovianus 
27 June 363: Flavius Jovianus Augustus
17 February 364: natural death?

Picture: ©!!

Coin of Valentinian I. Valkhof Museum, Nijmegen (Holland). Photo Marco Prins. Valentinian I

321: Valentinianus 
25 February 364: Flavius Valentinianus Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (368), Alamannicus maximus (368),  Francicus maximus (368), Gothicus maximus (369) 
17 november 375: natural death

co-emperor of Valens; ruled in the west

Picture: Valkhof Museum, Nijmegen

Medaillon of Valens. Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz (Germany). Photo Marco Prins. Valens

±328: Valens
28 March 364: Imperator Caesar Flavius Valens Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (368), Alamannicus maximus (368),  Francicus maximus (368), Gothicus maximus (369)
2 August 378: killed in action

co-emperor of Valentinian I; ruled in the east

Picture: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz

Coin of Gratian. Gratian

April 359: Gratianus 
24 Augustus 367: Imperator Caesar Flavius Gratianus Augustus 
Germanicus maximus (368), Alamannicus maximus (368),  Francicus maximus (368), Gothicus maximus (369)
25 August 383: murdered by Magnus Maximus

ruled in the west

Picture: ©!!

Statue of Valentinian II from Aphrodisias. Arkeoloji Müzesi, İstanbul (Turkey). Photo Marco Prins. Valentinian II

Autumn 371: Valentinianus
22 November 375: Valentinianus Augustus
15 May 392: murdered by his general Arbogast

ruled in the west

Picture: Arkeoloji Müzesi, İstanbul (Turkey).

Coin of Theodosius I the Great. Valkhofmuseum, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Photo Marco Prins. Theodosius I

11 January 347: Flavius Theodosius 
19 January 379: Flavius Theodosius Augustus
17 January 395: natural death

ruled in the east; last one to unite the empire briefly

Picture: Valkhofmuseum, Nijmegen

Coin of Magnus Maximus. Bode-Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering. Magnus Maximus

full name and date of birth unknown
Spring 383: Magnus Maximus Augustus 
Britannicus maximus
28 July 388: executed

ruled in the west

Picture: Bode-Museum, Berlin

Bust of Arcadius. Forum of Theodosius, Constantinople; Arkeoloji Müzesi, İstanbul (Turkey). Photo Marco Prins. Arcadius

377: Flavius Arcadius 
19 January 383: Flavius Arcadius Augustus
1 May 408: natural death

co-emperor of Honorius; ruled in the east

Picture: Arkeoloji Müzesi, İstanbul 

Bust of Honorius. Musei Capitolini, Roma (Italy). Photo Marco Prins. Honorius

9 September 384: Flavius Honorius 
January 393: Flavius Honorius Augustus
15 August 423: natural death

co-emperor of Arcadius; ruled in the west

Picture: Musei Capitolini, Roma; ©**



first century
second century
Gaul   :   third century   :   Palmyra
fourth century
fifth century (West)  :  fifth century (East)

Literature

Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle. Grundzüge einer römischen Kaiserchronologie (1990 Darmstadt)