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Sumerian King List

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Mask of a Sumerian. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Jona Lendering.
Mask of a Sumerian
(Louvre)
Sumerian King List: list of rulers of ancient Sumer, used as a framework for the study of Mesopotamian chronology. Sixteen copies (indicated as A, B, C... P) of this text are known, all of them written in Sumerian, although some of them clearly show Akkadian influence. The text appears to have been composed in the late third millennium BCE (Ur III period), and was later updated. The sequence of cities is identical to the Eridu Genesis.

The text presented here is based on version G, an octagonal prism from Larsa.

Translation

After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridu.
In Eridu, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28,800 years.
Alalgar ruled for 36,000 years.
Two kings; they ruled for 64800 years.
Then Eridu fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira.
In Bad-tibira, Enmen-lu-ana ruled for 43,200 years.
Enmen-gal-ana ruled for 28,800 years.
The divine Dumuzi, the shepherd, ruled for 36,000 years.
Three kings; they ruled for 108,000 years.
Then Bad-tibira fell and the kingship was taken to Larak.
In Larak, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28,800 years.
One king; he ruled for 28,800 years.
Then Larak fell and the kingship was taken to Sippar.
In Sippar, Enmen-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21,000 years.
One king; he ruled for 21000 years.
Then Sippar fell and the kingship was taken to Šuruppak.
In Šuruppak, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18,600 years.
One king; he ruled for 18,600 years.
Five cities; eight kings ruled for 385,200sic years.
Then the Flood swept over.
After the Flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kiš.
In Kiš, Gišur became king; he ruled for 1,200 years.
Kullassina-bl ruled for 900 years.
Nan-GIŠ-lišma ruled for 1,200 years.
En-dara-ana ruled for 420 years, 3 months, and 3 days.
Babum ruled for 300 years.
Pu'annum ruled for 840 years.
Kalibum ruled for 900 years.
Kalumum ruled for 840 years. 
Zuqaqip ruled for 900 years.
Atab ruled for 600 years.
Mašda, son of Atab, ruled for 840 years.
Arwi'um, son of Mašda, ruled for 720 years.
Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and put all countries in order, became king; he ruled for 1,500 years.
Balih, son of Etana, ruled for 400 years.
Enme-nuna ruled for 660 years.
Melem-Kiš, son of Enme-nuna, ruled for 900 years.
Barsal-nuna, son of Enme-nuna, ruled for 1,200 years.
Samug, son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years.
Tizkar, son of Samug, ruled for 305 years.
Ilku'u ruled for 900 years.
Ilta-sadum ruled for 1200 years.
Enmen-baragesi, who destroyed Elam's weapons, became king; he ruled for 900 years.
Agga, son of Enmen-baragesi, ruled for 625 years. 
Twenty-three kings ruled for 23,310 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Eanna.
In Eanna, Meš-ki'ag-gašer, son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for 324 years. Meš-ki'ag-gašer entered the sea and disappeared.
Enmekar, son of Meš-ki'ag-gašer, the king of Uruk, who built Uruk, became king; he ruled for 420 years.
The divine Lugal-banda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years.
The divine Dumuzi, the fisherman, whose city was Ku'ara, ruled for 100.
Gilgameš, whose father was an invisible being, the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years.
Ur-Nungal, son of the divine Gilgameš, ruled for 30 years.
Udul-kalama, son of Ur-Nungal, ruled for 15 years.
La-bašer ruled for 9 years.
Ennun-dara-ana ruled for 8 years.
Mešhe, the smith, ruled for 36 years.
Melem-ana ruled for 6 years.
Lugal-ki-GIN ruled for 36 years.
Twelve kings ruled for 2310 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur.
In Ur, Mes-ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. 
Meš-ki'ag-Nuna, son of Mes-ane-pada, became king; he ruled for 36 year.
Elulu ruled for 25 years.
Balulu ruled for 36 years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:)
Four kings ruled for 177 years.
Then Ur was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.
In Awan, [...] became king; he ruled for [...] years. 
[...]-Lu ruled for [...] years.
Kul[...] ruled for 36 years.
Three kings ruled for 356 years.
Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
In Kiš, Su-suda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 200+N years.
Dadase ruled for 81 years.
Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for 240+N years.
Kalbum, son of Mamagal, ruled for 195 years.
TUG ruled for 360 years.
Men-nuna ruled for 180 years.
Enbi-Ištar ruled for 290 years.
Lugalgu ruled for 360 years.
Eight kings they ruled for 3195sic years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.
In Hamazi, Hataniš became king; he ruled for 360 years.
One king ruled for 360 years.
Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk.
In Uruk, En-šakuš-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years.
Lugal-ure ruled for 120 years.
Argandea ruled for 7 years.
Three kings ruled for 187 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur.
In Ur, Nanne became king; he ruled for 54+N years.
Mes-ki'ag-Nanna, son of Nanne, ruled for 48 years. 
[...], the son of [...], ruled for 2 years.
Three kings ruled for [...] years.
Then Ur was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab.
In Adab, Lugal-ane-mundu became king; he ruled for 90 years.
One king ruled for 90 years.
Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari.
In Mari, Anubu became king; he ruled for 30 years.
Anba, son of Anubu, ruled for 17 years.
Bazi, the leather worker, ruled for 30 years.
Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years.
Lim-er, the pašišu-priest, ruled for 30 years.
Šarrum-iter ruled for 9 years.
Six kings ruled for 136 years.
Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
In Kiš, Ku-Baba, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kiš, became king; she ruled for 100 years.
One queen ruled for 100 years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akšak.
In Akšak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years.
Undalulu ruled for 6 years.
Urur ruled for 6 years.
Puzur-Nirah ruled for 20 years.
Išu-Il ruled for 24 years.
Šu-Sin, son of Išu-Il, ruled for 7 years.
Six kings ruled for 93 years.
Then Akšak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kiš.
In Kiš, Puzur-Sin, son of Ku-Baba, became king; he ruled for 25 years.
Ur-Zababa, son of Puzur-Sin, ruled for 400.
Simudara ruled for 30 years.
Usi-watar ruled for 7 years.
Ištar-muti ruled for 11 years.
Išme-Šamaš ruled for 11 years.
Nanniya, the stonecutter, ruled for 7 years.
Seven kings ruled for 491 years.
Then Kiš was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk.
In Uruk, Lugalzagesi became king; he ruled for 25 years. (2341-2316)
One king ruled for 25 years.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Agade.
In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade; he ruled for 56 years. (2335-2279)
Rimuš, son of Sargon, ruled for 9 years. (2279-2270)
Maništušu, the older brother of Rimuš, son of Sargon, ruled for 15 years. (2270-2255)
Naram-Sin, son of Maništušu, ruled for 56 years. (2255-2218)
Šar-kali-šarri, son of Naram-Sin, ruled for 25 years. (2218-2193)
Then who was king? Who was not king?
Irgigi was king, Nanum was king, Imi was king, Elulu was king; those four kings ruled 3 years. (2193-2190)
Dudu ruled for 21 years. (2190-2169)
Šu-Durul, son of Dudu, ruled for 15 years. (2169-2154)
Eleven kings ruled for 181 years.
Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk.
In Uruk, Ur-nigin became king; he ruled for 7 years. (2154-2147)
Ur-gigir, son of Ur-nigin, ruled for 6 years. (2147-2141)
Kuda ruled for 6 years. (2141-2135)
Puzur-ili ruled for 5 years. (2135-2130)
Ur-Utu ruled for 6 years. (2130-2124)
Five kings ruled for 30 years.
Uruk was defeated  and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium.
The army of Gutium, a king whose name is unknown.
Nibia became king; he ruled for 3 years.
Then Ingišu ruled for 6 years.
Ikukum-la-qaba ruled for 6 years.
Šulme ruled for 6 years.
Silulumeš ruled for 6 years. 
Inimabakeš ruled for 5 years.
Ige'a'uš ruled for 6 years.
I'ar-la-qaba ruled for years.
Ibate ruled for 3 years.
Yarla ruled for 3 years.
Kurum ruled for 1 year.
Apil-kin ruled for 3 years.
La'arabum ruled for 2 years.
Irarum ruled for 2 years.
Ibranum ruled for 1 year.
Hablum ruled for 2 years.
Puzur-Sin, son of Hablum, ruled for 7 years.
Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years
Si'u ruled for 7 years.
Tiriga ruled for 40 days.
Twenty-one kings ruled for 91 years and 40 days.
Then the army of Gutium was defeated and the kingship was taken to Uruk.
In Uruk, Utu-hegal became king; he ruled for 420 years and 7 days. (2124-2113)
One king ruled for 427 years and 6sic days.
Then Uruk was defeated and the kingship was taken to Ur.
In Ur, Ur-Nammu became king; he ruled for 18 years. (2113-2095)
Šulgi, son of Ur-Nammu, ruled for 46 years. (2095-2047)
Amar-Sin, son of Šulgi, ruled for 9 years. (2047-2038)
Šu-Sin, son of Amar-Sin, ruled for 9 years. (2038-2029)
Ibbi-Sin, son of Šu-Sin, ruled for 24 years. (2029-2004)
Foursic kings ruled for 108sic years.
Then Ur was defeated. The kingship was taken to Isin.
In Isin, Išbi-Irra became king; he ruled for 33 years. (2018-1985)
The divine Šu-ilišu, son of Išbi-Irra, ruled for 20 years. (1985-1975)
Iddin-Dagan, son of Šu-ilišu, ruled for 21 years. (1975-1954)
Išme-Dagan, son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for 20 years. (1954-1935)
Lipit-Ištar, son of Išme-Dagan, ruled for 11 years. (1935-1924)
The divine Ur-Ninurta ruled for 28 years. (1924-1896)
Bur-Sin, son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. (1896-1874)
Lipit-Enlil, son of Bur-Sin, ruled for 5 years. (1864-1869)
The divine Irra-imitti ruled for 8 years. (1869-1861)
The divine Enlil-bani ruled for 24 years. (1861-1837)
The divine Zambija ruled for 3 years. (1837-1834)
The divine Iter-piša ruled for 4 years. (1834-1831)
Urdukuga ruled for 4 years. (1831-1828)
Sin-magir ruled for 11 years. (1828-1817)
Damiq-ilišu, son of Sin-magir, ruled for 23 years. (1817-1794)
Thirteensic kings ruled for 213 years.
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Hand of Nur-Ninšubur.

After this, tablet B, from Nippur, adds some totals:
 
A total of thirty-nine kings ruled for 14409+N years, 3 months and 3 days; four dynasties in Kiš.
A total of twenty-two kings ruled for 2610+N years, 6 months and 15 days; five dynasties in Uruk.
A total of twelve kings ruled for 396 years, 3 dynasties in Ur.
A total of three kings ruled for 356 years; one dynasty in Awan.
A total of one king ruled for 420 years; one dynasty in Hamazi.
A total of one king ruled for 90 years; one dynasty in Adab.
A total of six kings ruled for 136 years; one dynasty in Mari.
A total of six kings ruled for 99 years; one dynasty in Akšak.
A total of eleven kings ruled for 197 years; one dynasty in Agade.
A total of twenty-one kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days; one dynasty in Gutium.
A total of eleven kings ruled for 159 years; one dynasty in Isin.
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Eleven royal cities. Their total: 134 kings. Total: 28,876+N years, N months, N days.

A tablet from Nippur (CM 2) is an addition to the Sumerian King List. It is too damaged to make sense of it.
 
(...)
[...] reigned 4+N years.
Ir[...];
Ur[...], son of a man whose name is not known, ruled for 8 years.
Sumuabum reigned 8 months.
Ikun-pi-Ištar became king; he ruled for [...] years.
A total of N kings ruled for 125+n years; six dynasties of [...]a.

Jona Lendering 2006
Latest revision: 10 May 2007
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