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Legio XII Victrix

Bust of Constantius Chlorus. Altes Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering.
Constantius Chlorus (Altes Museum, Berlin)
Legio XII Victrix: one of the legions of the later Roman empire. Its name means 'victorious'.

The name of this legion is only name from tiles and bricks from the third or fourth century, which were discovered at Strasburg, which was also the city of the old legion VIII Augusta. Possibly, the new legion was created at the end of the third century and was disbanded in the early fourth century. This suggests that this twelfth legion was created by the emperor Constantius I Chlorus (293-306). However, the other legions he founded all have the element Flavia in their names. Perhaps, the legion was created by the by the emperors of the Gallic Empire (260-274). Alternatively, it may have been created by Constantius II as a substitute for XXII Primigenia, which had been destroyed in the Battle of Mursa in 351.

It is odd that the name XII Victrix had already been used, three centuries earlier, by the legion that is better known as XII Fulminata.

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