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Livy: Periochae 1-2


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.

In the following text, years are not according to the common (Christian) era, but according to the Varronian chronology. In fact, this is not the system used by Livy (who seems to have had access to a better chronological system), and these years are added only because they can be found in many books. 

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Ex libro I

Adventus Aeneae in Italiam et res gestae. Ascani regnum Albae et deinceps Silviorum. Numitoris filia a Marte compressa nati Romulus et Remus. Amullius obtruncatus. Urbs a Romulo condita. Senatus lectus. Cum Sabinis bellatum. Spolia opima Feretrio Iovi lata. In curias populus divisus. Fidenates Veientes victi. Romulus consecratus.

Numa Pompilius ritus sacrorum tradidit. Porta Iani clausa.

Tullus Hostilius Albanos diripuit. Trigeminorum pugna. Metti Fufeti supplicium. Tullus fulmine consumptus.

Ancus Marcius Latinos devicit, Ostiam condidit.

Tarquinius Priscus Latinos superavit, circum fecit, finitimos devicit, muros et cloacas fecit.

Servio Tullio caput arsit. Servius Tullius Veientes devicit et populum in classes divisit, aedem Dianae dedicavit.

Tarquinius Superbus occiso Tullio regnum invasit. Tulliae scelus in patrem. Turnus Herdonius per Tarquinium occisus. Bellum cum Vulscis. Fraude Sex. Tarquini Gabi direpti. Capitolium inchoatum. Termonis et Iuventae arae moveri non potuerunt. Lucretia se occidit. Superbi expulsio. Regnatum est annis CCLV.

From book 1

Arrival in Italy of Aeneas; his acts. Reign of Ascanius at Alba and the Silvians after him. Romulus and Remus born from a daughter of Numitor, raped by Mars. Amullius killed. City founded by Romulus. Creation of the SenateWar with the Sabines. Supreme booty given to Jupiter Feretrius. People divided into curiae. Fidenates and Veientans defeated. Consecration of Romulus.

Numa Pompilius organized the sacred rituals. Gate of Janus closed.

Tullus Hostilius seized part of the land of the Albanians. Clash of the triplets. Punishment of Mettius Fufetius. Tullus consumed by lightning.

Ancus Martius defeated the Latins, founded Ostia.

Tarquinius Priscus overcame the Latins, founded the Circus [Maximus], subdued the neighboring people, and built the walls and sewer system.

Flames near the head of Servius Tullius. Servius Tullius defeated the Veientans, divided the people in classes, and dedicated the sanctuary of Diana.

Having killed Tullius, Tarquinius Superbus seized the kingdom. Crime of Tullia against her father. Turnus Herdonius killed by Tarquinius. War against the Volscians. With a stratagem, Sextus Tarquinius seized Gabii. Start of the building of the Capitol. The altars of Terminus and Juventus could not be moved. Lucretia killed herself. Expulsion of Superbus [510 VC]The monarchy had lasted 245 years.

Ex libro II

Brutus iureiurando populum adstrinxit, neminem Romae regnare passuros. Tarquinium Conlatinum, collegam suum, propter adfinitatem Tarquiniorum suspectum coegit consulatu se abdicare et civitate cedere. Bona regum diripi iussit, agrum Marti consecravit; qui campus Martius nominatus est. Adulescentes nobiles, in quibus suos quoque et fratris filios, quia coniuraverant de recipiendis regibus, securi percussit. Servo indici, cui Vindicio nomen fuit, libertatem dedit. (Ex cuius nomine vindicta appellata.)

Cum adversus reges, qui contractis Veientum et Tarquiniensium copiis bellum intulerant, exercitum duxisset, in acie cum Arrunte, filio Superbi, commortuus est; eumque matronae anno luxerunt.

P. Valerius consul legem de provocatione ad populum tulit. Capitolium dedicatum est.

Porsenna, Clusinorum rex, bello pro Tarquiniis suscepto cum ad Ianiculum venisset, ne Tiberim transiret, virtute Coclitis Horati prohibitus est. Qui, dum alii pontem Sublicium rescindunt, solus Etruscos sustinuit et ponte rupto armatus in flumen se misit et ad suos transnavit. Accessit alterum virtutis exemplum in Mucio. Qui cum ad feriendum Porsennam castra hostium intrasset, occiso scriba, quem regem esse existimaverat, comprehensus impositam manum altaribus, in quibus sacrificatum erat, exuri passus est dixitque tales CCC esse. Quorum admiratione coactus Porsenna pacis condiciones ferre bellum omisit acceptis obsidibus. Ex quibus virgo una Cloelia deceptis custodibus per Tiberim ad suos transnavit et, cum reddita esset, a Porsenna honorifice remissa equestri statua donata est.

Adversus Tarquinium Superbum cum Latinorum exercitu bellum inferentem Aulus Postumius dictator prospere pugnavit.

Appius Claudius ex Sabinis Romam transfugit. Ob hoc Claudia tribus adiecta est numerusque tribuum ampliatus est, ut essent XXI.

Plebs cum propter nexos ob aes alienum in Sacrum Montem secessisset, consilio Meneni Agrippae a seditione revocata eat. Idem Agrippa cum decessisset, propter paupertatem publico impendio elatus est. Tribuni plebis quinque creati sunt.

Oppidum Vulscorum Corioli captum est virtute et opera Cn. Marci, qui ob hoc Coriolanus vocatus est.

T. Latinius, vir de plebe, cum in visu admonitus, ut de quibusdam religionibus ad senatum perferret, et neglexisset, amisso filio pedibus debilis factus, postquam delatus ad senatum lectica eadem illa indicaverat, usu pedum recepto domum reversus est.

Cum Cn. Marcius Coriolanus, qui in exilium erat pulsus, dux Vulscorum factus exercitum hostium urbi admovisset, et missi ad eum primum legati, postea sacerdotes frustra deprecati essent ne bellum patriae inferret, Veturia mater et Volumnia uxor impetraverunt ab eo, ut recederet.

Lex agraria primum lata est. 

Spurius Cassius consularis regni crimine damnatus est necatusque.

Opillia virgo Vestalis ob incestum viva defossa est.

Cum vicini Veientes incommodi magis quam graves essent, familia Fabiorum id bellum gerendum depoposcit misitque in id trecentos et sex armatos, qui ad Cremeram praeter unum ab hostibus caesi sunt.

Appius Claudius cos. cum adversus Vulscos contumacia exercitus male pugnatum esset, decimum quemque militum fuste percussit.

Res praeterea adversus Vulscos et Hernicos et Veientes et seditiones inter patres plebemque continet.

From book 2

[509 VC] Brutus made the people swear that they would never tolerate that someone would be king in Rome. He forced his colleague Tarquinius Collatinus, who was suspect because of his relation to the Tarquinii, to give up consulate and citizenship. He ordered the possessions of the king to be destroyed, and dedicated the land to Mars; it is called Field of Mars. He ordered the decapitation of young noblemen, among whom were his own and his brother's sons, because they had conspired to bring back the kings. The slave who had denounced the conspiracy, whose name was Vindicius, was given freedom. (From his name, the word for release is derived.)

When he [Brutus] lead an army against the kings, who had started a war with the united troops from Veii and Tarquinii, he died in a duel together with Arruns, the son of Superbus; the married women mourned for a year.

Consul Publius Valerius [Publicola] granted the people the right of appeal. The Capitol was dedicated.

[508 VC] When king Porsenna of Clusium, continuing the war on behalf of the Tarquinii, arrived on the Janiculum, he was unable to cross the Tiber because of the bravery of Horatius Cocleswho, when others destroyed the wooden bridge, single-handed resisted the Etruscans and, when the bridge collapsed, jumped, still carrying his arms, into the river and swam to his friends. Another example of courage was that of Mucius [Scaevola], who entered the enemy camp to kill Porsenna, but slew his scribe (whom he believed to be the king), was arrested and held his hand on an altar, which was used for sacrifices, let his hand burn and declared that there were three hundred men like him. Impressed by their courage, Porsenna opened negotiations and put an end to the war when he received hostages. One of them was a young woman named Cloelia, who deceived her guards, swam to her relatives, and, when she had been sent back, was honorably released by Porsenna and received an equestrian statue.

[496 VC] Dictator Aulus Postumius successfully fought against Tarquinius Superbus, who continued the war with the army of Latins

[504 VC] Appius Claudius migrated from the Sabines to Rome. Because of this, the Claudian district was created, and the number of district was expanded to twenty.

[494 VC] When, because of the servitude of debtors, the plebs seceded to the Holy Mountain, they came back from their rebellion after receiving advise from Menenius Agrippa. When this man died, he received a state funeral, because he was so poor. Five tribunes of the plebs were created.

[492 VC] Corioli, a Volscian town, was captured by the talent and work of Gnaeus Marcius, who was surnamed Coriolanus.

[491 VC] When Titus Latinius, a plebeian, had been warned in a vision that he had to inform the Senate about some religious affair, and neglected his duty, he lost his son and his feet were lame, but when he was carried to the Senate on a bed and informed them, he regained the command of his feet and returned home.

[488 VC] When Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus, who had been exiled, was made leader of the Volscians and led an enemy army against the city, first envoys were sent, then priests, begging him not to attack his own country, but he did not return until his mother Veturia and wife Volumnia asked the same.

[486 VC] The first agrarian bill was passed.

Former consul Spurius Cassius was condemned for attempting to become king and was killed.

[484 VC] The Vestal virgin Opillia [Oppia] was buried alive because of unchastity.

[479 VC]When the neighboring Veientans became more irritating than dangerous, the Fabius family asked to be charged with the war, and sent out three hundred and six armed men, who were killed by the enemies near the river Cremera, except for one.

[470 VC]Consul Appius Claudius unsuccessfully fought against the Volscians because his army did not obey him, and ordered that one of every ten soldiers should be killed with rods.

It [book 2] also contains accounts of the wars against the Volscians, Hernicians, and Veientans, and the struggle between the patricians and the plebs.

to the Periochae of books 3-5
 
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