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Livy: Periochae 3-5


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.

In the following text, years are not according to the common (Christian) era, but according to the Varronian chronology. In fact, this is not the system used by Livy (who seems to have had access to a better chronological system), and these years are added only because they can be found in many modern books. 

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Ex libro III

Seditiones de agrariis legibus fuere. Capitolium ab exulibus et servis occupatum caesis his receptum est.

Census bis actus est. Priore lustro censa sunt civium capita CVIII milia DCCXIIII praeter orbos orbasque, sequenti CXVII milia CCXVIIII.

Cum adversus Aequos male gesta res esset, L. Quintius Cincinnatus dictator factus, cum rure intentus operi rustico esset, ad id bellum gerendum arcessitus est. Is victos hostes sub iugum misit.

Tribunorum plebis numerus ampliatus est, ut essent X tricesimo sexto anno a primis tribunis plebis.

Petitis per legatos et adlatis Atticis legibus ad constituendas eas proponendasque Xviri pro consulibus sine ullis aliis magistratibus creati altero et trecentesimo anno quam Roma condita erat, et ut a regibus ad consules, ita a consulibus ad Xviros imperium translatum. Hi X tabulis legum positis cum modeste se in eo honore gessissent et ob id in alterum quoque annum eundem esse magistratum placuisset, duabus tabulis ad X adiectis cum complura impotenter fecissent, magistratum noluerunt deponere et in tertium annum retinuerunt, donec inviso eorum imperio finem adtulit libido Appi Claudi. Qui cum in amorem Virginiae virginis incidisset, summisso qui eam in servitutem peteret, necessitatem patri eius Virginio inposuit. Rapto ex taberna proxima cultro filiam occidit, cum aliter effici non posset, ne in potestatem stuprum inlaturi veniret. Hoc tam magnae iniuriae exemplo plebs concitata montem Aventinum occupavit coegitque Xviros abdicare se magistratu. Ex quibus Appius, qui praecipuam poenam meruerat, in carcerem coiectus est, ceteri in exilium acti.

Res praeterea contra Sabinos et Vulscos prospere gestas continet et parum honestum populi Romani iudicium. Qui iudex inter Ardeates et Aricinos sumptus agrum, de quo ambigebatur, sibi adiudicavit.

From book 3

[462 VC] There were riots because of the land bills. The Capitol, which had been occupied by exiles and slaves, was recaptured after a massacre.

The ritual cleansing of the state was performed twice. During the first ceremony 108,714 people were registered (widows and orphans not included), during the second 117,219.

[458 VC] After an unsuccessful fight against the Aequans, Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus was made dictator; because he was in the country, working on his land, it was there that he was asked to wage war. He sent the defeated enemies under the yoke.

[457 VC] Thirty-six years after the first tribunes of the plebs were elected, the number of tribunes of the plebs was expanded, so that there were ten.

[451 VC] After envoys had been sent to Athens to consult and propagate the laws, a board of ten men, with the powers of consuls and without any other magistrates, was created in the three hundred and second year since the founding of the city, and power was transferred from the consuls to the ten as it had once been transferred from the kings to the consuls. During the publication of the first ten tables of laws, they behaved moderately, and it was decided that they would stay in office for a second year [450 VC], but after adding two tablets to the other ten, they started to commit excesses, refused to lay down their magistracy, and would have claimed a third term, if the lust had of Appius Claudius had not put an end to their detested power. Because he burned with passion for a girl named Virginia, he sent someone to claim her as his slave, which forced her father to a desperate measure.From a nearby shop he took a knife and killed his daughter, because he had no other means to prevent her from being dishonored. After this example of supreme injustice, the angry mob occupied the Aventine and forced the board to ten to abdicate. Appius, who had deserved the supreme punishment, was thrown into jail; the others were exiled.

It [book 3] also contains an account of successful wars against the Sabines and Volscans, and of a rather dishonest arbitration by the Roman people,which had been asked to judge between the claims on a piece of land people of Ardea and Aricia, and kept it for itself.

Ex libro IIII

Lex de conubio patrum et plebis a tribunis contentione magna patribus repugnantibus perlata est.

Tribuni [lacuna] plebis. Aliquot annos res populi R. domi militiaeque per hoc genus magistratus administratae sunt. Item censores tunc primum creati sunt.

Ager Ardeatibus populi iudicio ablatus missis in eum colonis restitutus est.

Cum fame populus R. laboraret, Spurius Maelius eques R. frumentum populo sua inpensa largitus est, et ob hoc factum conciliata sibi plebe regnum adfectans a C. Servilio Ahala magistro equitum iussu Quinti Cincinnati dictatoris occisus est; L. Minucius index bove aurata donatus est.

Legatis Romanorum a Fidenatibus occisis, quoniam ob rem p. morte occubuerant, statuae in rostris positae sunt.

Cossus Cornelius tribunus militum occiso Tolumnio, Veientum rege, opima spolia secunda rettulit.

Mam. Aemilius dictator censurae honorem, qui antea per quinquennium gerebatur, anni et sex mensum spatio finiit; ob eam rem a censoribus notatus est.

Fidenae in potestatem redactae eoque coloni missi sunt. Quibus occisis Fidenates cum defecissent, ab Mam. Aemilio dictatore victi sunt et Fidenae captae.

Coniuratio servorum oppressa est.

Postumius tribunus militum propter crudelitatem ab exercitu occisus est.

Stipendium ex aerario tum primum militibus datum est.

Res praeterea gestas adversus Vulscos at Fidenates et Faliscos continet.

From book 4

[445 VC] After a big struggle, organized by the tribunes, and in spite of patrician opposition, the law on the marriage between patricians and plebeians was repealed.

The tribunes [lacuna, in which the appointment of the first military tribunes with consular powers in 443 VC was mentioned, an office that could also be occupied by members] of the plebs. For several years, the internal and military affairs of the Roman people were administered by this type of magistrates. [443 VC] And for the first time, censors were created.

The land that had been seized by popular judgment from the Ardeatines, was given back to settlers.

[440 VC] When the Roman people suffered from famine, a Roman knight named Spurius Maelius paid to give much grain to the people, but when he became popular among the poor and wanted to become king, [439 VC] he was killed by Gaius Servilius Ahala, master of horse, who had been ordered to do so by dictator [Lucius] Quintius Cincinnatus. Lucius Minucius, who had denounced Maelius, was given a gilded [statue of] a bull.

[437 VC] When Roman envoys were killed by the Fidenates, their statues were erected on the speaker's platform, because they had died while serving the state.

[436 VC] After military tribune Cornelius Cossus had killed king Tolumnius of Veii, he returned with supreme spoils.

[434 VC] Dictator Mamercus Aemilius limited the censorship, which until then had lasted five years, to one year and six months, he was fined by the censors.

Fidenae was seized and settlers were sent. When these had been killed by rebellious Fidenates, the latter were defeated by dictator Mamercus Aemilius and Fidenae was captured.

A conspiracy of slaves was suppressed. 

[414 VC] Because of his cruelty, military tribune Postumius was killed by his own troops.

[406 VC] For the first time, the soldiers received by from the state's treasury.

It [book 4] also contains accounts of wars against the Volscans, Fidenates, and Faliscians.

Ex libro V

In obsidione Veiorum tabernacula militibus facta sunt. Ea res cum esset nova, indignationem tribunorum plebis movit querentium non dari plebi nec per hiemem militiae requiem.

Equites tum primum equis suis mereri coeperunt.

Cum inundatio ex lacu Albano facta esset, vates, qui eam rem interpretaretur, ex hostibus captus est.

Furius Camillus dictator X annis obsessos Veios cepit, simulacrum Iunonis Romam transtulit, decimam praedae Delphos Apollini misit. Idem tribunus militum cum Faliscos obsideret, proditos hostium filios parentibus remisit statimque deditione facta Faliscorum victoriam iustitia consecutus est.

Cum alter ex censoribus C. Iulius decessisset, in locum eius M. Cornelius suffectus est. Nec id postea factum est, quoniam eo lustro a Gallis Roma capta est.

Furius Camillus, cum dies ei ab L. Apuleio tribuno pl. dicta esset, in exilium abiit.

Cum Galli Senones Clusium obsiderent et legati a senatu missi ad componendam inter eos et Clusinos pacem pugnantes contra Gallos starent in acie Clusinorum, hoc facto eorum concitati Senones urbem infesto exercitu petierunt fusisque ad Aliam Romanis cepere urbem praeter Capitolium, quo se iuventus contulerat; maiores natu cum insignibus honorum, quos quisque gesserat, in vestibulis aedium sedentes occiderunt. Et cum per aversam partem Capitoli iam in summum evasissent, proditi clangore anserum M. Manli praecipue opera deiecti sunt. Coactis deinde propter famem Romanis eo descendere, ut M pondo auri darent et hoc pretio finem obsidionis emerent, Furius Camillus, dictator absens creatus, inter ipsum conloquium, quo de pacis condicionibus agebatur, cum exercitu venit et Gallos post sextum mensem urbe expulit ceciditque.

Dictum est ad Veios migrandum esse propter incensam et dirutam urbem, quod consilium Camillo auctore discussum est. Movit populum vocis quoque omen ex centurione auditae, qui cum in forum venisset, manipularibus suis dixerat: "Sta, miles, hic optime manebimus."

Aedis Iovi Capitolino facta est, quod ante urbem captam vox audita erat adventare Gallos.

From book 5

During the siege of Veii, winter quarters were occupied. This was something new, and the tribunes of the plebs complained that the people were not even in the winter given rest from military service.

The cavalry men started to serve on their own horses.

[398 VC] When the Alban Lake was overflowing, a seer, who could interpret this omen, was captured from the enemies.

[396 VC] Dictator [Marcus] Furius Camillus captured Veii after a siege of ten years, transferred the statue of Juno to Rome, and sent one tenth of the spoils to Apollo in Delphi[394 VC] When the same man, as military tribune, besieged the Faliscans, he sent back the children of the enemy, who had treacherously been handed over to him, to their parents, and his justice immediately caused the surrender of and victory over the Faliscans.

When Gaius Julius, one of the censors, died, Marcus Cornelius succeeded him. This was never done again, because in their period in office, Rome was captured by the Gauls.

[391 VC] When [Marcus] Furius Camillus was accused by tribune Lucius Apuleius, he went into exile.

[390 VC = 387/386 BCE] When the Gallic Senones besieged Clusium, and envoys were sent by the Senate to negotiate a peace between them and the Clusians, and the envoys [instead] fought in the Clusian battle array against the Gauls, the Senones, insulted by their behavior, marched on Rome with an army ready for battle, defeated the Romans near the Allia, and captured the city, except for the Capitol, which was the refuge of the young men; the old men, sitting at the entrances of their houses with their signs of honor they had obtained, were killed. And when the Gauls climbed to the summit of the hill opposite the [temple of Jupiter on the] Capitol, their approach was betrayed by the sound of the geese, and they were thrown down by the efforts of especially Marcus Manlius. Forced by famine the Romans descended, to pay thousand pounds of gold and buy the end of the siege, but Furius Camillus, who had been made dictator while away, arrived during the peace negotiations with an army, expelled the Gauls who had been in the city for six months, and massacred them.

Because the city was burnt and sacked, there was talk about migration to Veii, but the project was canceled by the intervention of Camillus. An omen guided the people when they heard the voice of an officer, who arrived at the Forum and said to his standard bearer: "Stay, soldier, this is the best place to remain."

A shrine was dedicated to the Capitoline Jupiter, because before the city had been captured, a voice had been heard that warned for the Gauls.

to the Periochae of books 6-7
 
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