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Livy: Periochae 8-10


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.

In the following text, most years are not according to the common (Christian) era, but according to the Varronian chronology. In fact, this is not the system used by Livy (who seems to have had access to a better chronological system), and these years are added only because they can be found in many modern books. After 300, the difference disappears.

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Ex libro VIII

Latini cum Campania defecere et missis legatis ad senatum condicionem tulerunt ut, si pacem habere vellent, alterum ex Latinis consulem facerent. Qua legatione perlata praetor eorum Annius de Capitolio ita lapsus est, ut exanimaretur.

T. Manlius consul filium, quod contra edictum eius adversus Latinos pugnaverat, quamvis prospere pugnasset, securi percussit. Laborantibus in acie Romanis P. Decius, tunc consul cum Manlio, devovit se pro exercitu et concitato equo cum in medios hostes se intulisset, interfectus morte sua Romanis victoriam restituit. Latini in deditionem venerunt. T. Manlio in urbem reverso nemo ex iuventute obviam processit.

Minucia, virgo Vestalis, incesti damnata est.

Ausonibus victis et oppido ex is capto Cales, item Fregellae coloniae deductae sunt.

Veneficium complurium matronarum deprehensum est, ex quibus plurimae statim epotis medicaminibus perierunt. Lex de veneficio tunc primum constituta est.

Privernatibus, cum bellassent, victis civitas data est. Neapolitani bello et obsidione victi in deditionem venerunt.Q. Publilio, qui eos obsederat, primo et imperium prolatum est et procos. triumphus decretus.

Plebs nexu liberata est propter L. Papiri creditoris libidinem, qui C. Publilio debitori suo stuprum inferre voluerat.

Cum L. Papirius Cursor dictator reversus in urbem ab exercitu esset propter auspicia repetenda, Q. Fabius, magister equitum, occasione bene gerendae rei invitatus, contra edictum eius prospere adversus Samnites pugnavit. Ob eam causam cum dictator de magistro equitum supplicium sumpturus videretur, Fabius Romam profugit et, cum parum causa proficeret, populi precibus donatus est.

Res praeterea contra Samnites prospere gestas continet.

From book 8

[340 VC] The Latins defected with Campania and sent envoys to the Senate to tell, that if the Romans wanted peace, one of the consuls had to be a Latin. When this embassy had discussed its objective, their leader Annius fell from the Capitol and died.

Consul Titus Manlius [Torquatus] punished his son, who had fought against the Latins without permission, and had him, although he had fought successfully, executed with an ax. The Roman army fought with great difficulty and Publius Decius [Mus], who was consul with Manlius, devoted himself to the gods to save his army; seated on his horse, he threw himself amidst of his enemies, was killed, and his death gave victory to the Romans. The Latins surrendered. No young men came out to greet Titus Manlius when he returned to the city.

[337 VC] The Vestal virgin Minucia was condemned because of unchastity.

[328 VC] When the Ausonians were defeated and their capital had been captured, colonies were founded in Cales and Fregellae.

[331 VC] Several married women were convicted for poisoning, and many of them perished immediately by drinking their own medicine. For the first time, a law on poisoning was passed.

[328 VC] The defeated Privernates, who had revolted, received citizenship. [326 VC] The surrender of the Neapolitans, who were defeated in war and after a siege, was accepted. Quintus Publilius, who had besieged them, was the first to see his powers prolonged and received a triumph as a proconsul

The poor were freed from debt slavery because of the libiduous passions of a creditor named Lucius Papirius, who demanded a dishonorable act from his debtor Gaius Publilius. 

[325 VC] When dictator Lucius Papirius Cursor had left the army to go back to the city for renewing the auspices, his master of horse Quintus Fabius, seeing a favorable opportunity, successfully -but without permission- fought against the Samnites. Because of this, the dictator wanted to execute the master of horse, but Fabius escaped to Rome, and received a pardon after the people had begged for it.

It [book 8] also contains an account of successful wars against the Samnites.

Ex libro IX

T. Veturius Spurius Postumius coss. apud furcas Caudinas deducto in locum artum exercitu, cum spes nulla esset evadendi, foedere cum Samnitibus facto et sescentis equitibus Romanis obsidibus datis ita exercitum abduxerunt, ut omnes sub iugum mitterentur; idemque auctore Spurio Postumio cos., qui in senatu suaserat, ut eorum deditione, quorum culpa tam deforme foedus ictum erat, publica fides liberaretur, cum duobus trib. pl. et omnibus qui foedus spoponderant, dediti Samnitibus, non sunt recepti. Nec multo post, fusis a Papirio Cursore Samnitibus et sub iugum missis, receptisque sescentis equitibus Romanis, qui obsides dati erant, pudor flagitii prioris abolitus est.

Tribus duae adiectae sunt, Oufentina et Falerna. Suessa et Pontia coloniae deductae sunt.

Appius Claudius censor aquam perduxit; viam stravit, quae Appia vocata est; libertinorum filios in senatum legit. Ideoque quoniam is ordo indignis inquinatus videbatur, sequentis anni coss. in senatu legendo observaverunt, quem ad modum ante proximos censores fuerat.

Res praeterea contra Apulos et Etruscos et Umbros et Marsos et Paelignos et Aequos et Samnites, quibus foedus restitutum est, prospere gestas continet.

Cn. Flavius scriba, libertino patre natus, aedilis curulis fuit per forensem factionem creatus, quae cum comitia et campum turbaret et in his propter nimias vires dominaretur, a Q. Fabio censore in quattuor tribus redacta est, quas urbanas appellavit. Eaque res Fabio Maximo nomen dedit.

In hoc libro mentionem habet Alexandri, qui temporibus his fuit, et aestimatis populi R. viribus quae tunc erant, colligit, si Alexander in Italiam traiecisset, non tam ei victoriam de populo R. fore quam de his gentibus quas ad orientem imperio suo subiecerat.

From book 9

[321 VC] When consuls Titus Veturius and Spurius Postumius had maneuvered their army in a difficult position in the Caudine Forks, and there was no hope of escaping, they concluded a treaty with the Samnites and gave six hundred Roman knights as hostages, so that the army could be led away, although all were sent under the yoke. On the initiative of consul Spurius Postumius, the consuls were, together with two tribunes of the plebs and several others who had guaranteed the treaty, surrendered to the Samnites, because they were responsible for the disgraceful treaty, and because in this way the Senate was not obliged to ratify it. The Samnites refused to accept them. [320 VC] Not much later, they were defeated by Papirius Cursor and sent under the yoke, and the six hundred knights that served as hostages were recovered, so that the shame of the earlier disgrace was removed.

[318 VC] Two new voting districts were established, called Oufentina and Falerna. [313 VC] Colonies were founded in Suessa and Pontia.

[312 VC] Censor Appius Claudius built an aqueduct and constructed a road that is called Via Appia; he accepted the sons of freedmen as senators. Because of this, the senatorial order appeared to be polluted with unworthy people, and the consuls of the next year convoked the Senate as it had been under the preceding censors.

It [book 9] also contains accounts of successful wars against the Apulians, Etruscans, Umbrians, Marsians, Paeliginians, Aequans, and Samnites, with whom the treaty was renewed.

[304 VC] The scribe Gnaeus Flavius, born as son of a freedman, was made curulian aedile by the Forum Party, which had thrown into confusion the elections and the Field [of Mars] and dominated with its enormous strength. Therefore, censor Quintus Fabius divided it [the city] into four voting districts, which were called "urban". Because of this, he was called Fabius Maximus, "the Great".

This book also mentions Alexander [the Great], who lived at about this age [336-323 BCE], and an evaluation of the power of the Roman people at that time, and it is concluded that if Alexander had crossed to Italy, he would not have been able to overcome the Roman people in the same way as he had been able to subdue the people of the east.

Ex libro X

Coloniae deductae sunt Sora et Alba et Carsioli. Marsi in deditionem accepti sunt.

Collegium augurum ampliatum est, ut essent novem, cum antea quaterni fuissent.

Lex de provocatione ad populum a Murena cos. tertio tunc lata est. Duae tribus adiectae sunt, Aniensis et Terentina.

Samnitibus bellum indictum est et adversus eos saepe prospere pugnatum est.

Cum adversus Etruscos, Umbros, Samnites, Gallos, P. Decio et Q. Fabio ducibus pugnaretur et Romanus exercitus in magno discrimine esset, P. Decius, secutus patris exemplum, devovit se pro exercitu et morte sua victoriam eius pugnae populo R. dedit.

Papirius Cursor Samnitium exercitum, qui de iureiurando obstrictus quo maiore constantia virtutis pugnaret, in aciem descenderat, fudit.

Census actus est, lustrum conditum. Censa sunt civium capita CCLXXII milia et CCCXX.

From book 10

[303 VC] The colonies of Sora, Alba and Caesioli were founded. [302 VC] The surrender of the Marsi was accepted.

[300 BCE] The college of seers was expanded. From now on, there were nine; it used to be four.

Murena, consul for the third time, carried a law on appeal to the people. [299 BCE] Two voting districts were added, Aniensis and Terentina.

[298 BCE] War was declared on the Samnites, and they were frequently defeated.

[295 BCE] With Publius Decius [Mus] and Quintus Fabius as leaders, the Roman army was fighting against the Etruscans, Umbrians, and Gauls; it was in great trouble, but Publius Decius, following his father's example, devoted himself to the gods, sought death to save his army, and gave victory to the Roman people.

[293 BCE] Papirius Cursor descended upon and routed a Samnite army that had sworn to fight to the very last of its powers.

The people were registered and the lustrum ceremony was performed. 272,320 citizens were registered.

to the Periochae of books 11-15
 
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