|Ex libro XXI
ortum narrat et Hannibalis, ducis Poenorum, contra foedus per Hiberum
quo Saguntum, sociorum populi R. civitas, obsessa octavo mense capta
quibus iniuriis missi legati ad Carthaginienses, qui
satis facere nollent, bellum his indictum est.
Pyrenaeo saltu per Gallias, fusis Volcis (qui obsistere conati erant
ad Alpes venit et laborioso per eas transitu, cum montanos quoque
obvios aliquot proeliis reppulisset, descendit in Italiam et ad Ticinum
flumen Romanos equestri proelio fudit. In
quo vulneratum P. Cornelium Scipionem protexit filius, qui Africani
postea nomen accepit.
Romano ad flumen Trebiam fuso Hannibal Apenninum quoque permagna
militum propter vim tempestatium transiit.
in Hispania contra Poenos prospere pugnavit duce hostium Magone capto.
|From book 21
It [book 21]
about the beginning of the Second Punic War, and how Hannibal,
leader, crossed the river Ebro and violated the treaty. [218
BCE] He besieged Saguntum, a Roman ally, and took it in
of these violations, envoys were sent to the Carthaginians, to ask for
they refused satisfaction, war was declared.
traversed Gaul, defeated the Volcians (who tried to stop him), arrived
at the Alps, had a difficult crossing [more...]
of this mountain range, in which he several times had to rout Gallic
tribes, descended to Italy, and defeated the Romans in an equestrian
near the river Ticinus. In
this battle, Publius Cornelius Scipio was wounded but saved by his son,
who later accepted the surnamed Africanus.
a second Roman army near the river Trebia, and crossed the Apennines.
caused great problems for the soldiers.
Cornelius Scipio successfully fought against the Carthagians, and
the leader of the enemies, Mago.
|Ex libro XXII
vigilias in paludibus oculo amisso in Etruriam venit, per quas paludes
quadriduo et tribus noctibus sine ulla requie iter fecit.
homo temerarius, contra auspicia profectus signis militaribus effossis,
quae tolli non poterant, et ab equo, quem conscenderat, per caput
insidiis ab Hannibale circumventus ad Thrasymennum lacum cum exercitu
est. Sex milia,
quae eruperant, fide ab Atherbale data, perfidia Hannibalis vincta
ad nuntium cladis Romae luctus esset, duae matres ex insperato receptis
filiis gaudio mortuae sunt. Ob
hanc cladem ex Sibyllinis libris ver sacrum votum.
Cum deinde Q.
Maximus dictator adversus Hannibalem missus nollet acie cum eo
ne contra ferocem tot victoriis hostem adversis proeliis milites
committeret, et opponendo se tantum conatus Hannibalis impediret, M.
magister equitum, ferox et temerarius, criminando dictatorem tamquam
et timidum effecit, ut populi iussu aequaretur ei cum dictatore
divisoque exercitu cum iniquo loco conflixisset et in magno discrimine
legiones eius essent, superveniente cum exercitu Fabio Maximo
liberatus est. Quo
beneficio victus castra cum eo iunxit et patrem eum salutavit, idemque
facere milites iussit.
Campania inter Casilinum oppidum et Calliculam montem a Fabio clusus
ad cornua boum alligatis et incensis praesidium Romanorum, quod
insidebat, fugavit et sic transgressus est saltum. Idemque
Q. Fabi Maximi dictatoris, cum circumposita ureret, agro pepercit, ut
tamquam proditorem suspectum faceret.
Aemilio deinde Paulo et Terentio
Varrone coss. et ducibus cum magna clade adversus Hannibalem ad Cannas
pugnatum est, caesaque eo proelio Romanorum XLV milia cum Paulo cos. et
senatoribus XC et consularibus aut praetoriis aut aediliciis XXX.
Post quae cum a nobilibus adulescentibus
propter desperationem consilium de relinquenda Italia iniretur, P.
Scipio tribunus militum (qui
Africanus postea vocatus est) stricto
supra capita deliberantium ferro iuravit pro hoste se habiturum eum,
in verba sua non iurasset, effecitque ut omnes non relictum iri a se
Propter paucitatem militum VIII
milia servorum armata sunt. Captivi,
cum potestas esset redimendi, redempti non sunt.
Praeterea trepidationem urbis et
luctum et res in Hispania meliore eventu gestas continet.
Opimia et Florentia, virgines Vestales,
incesti damnatae sunt.
Varroni obviam itum et gratiae actae,
quod de re p. non desperasset.
|From book 22
much sleep in the marshes, Hannibal lost an eye, but he arrived in
having been marching without interruption through those marshes for
days and three nights.
Gaius Flaminius, a headstrong man, proceeded against the enemy, in
of bad omens and although he had had to order the military standards,
could not be moved, to be dug out, and although the horse he had
had thrown him over the head. He was ambushed by Hannibal near the Trasimene
lake, and massacred with his army. Six
thousand men who had broken out were chained by the perfidity of
although Atherbal [=Maharbal]
had given his
word. There was
general mourning because of this disaster, but two mothers died of joy
when they discovered that their sons, who they believed to be dead,
still alive. Because
of this disaster, on the authority of the Sibylline books, a Sacred
Quintus Fabius Maximus was sent out against Hannibal, but refused to
battle because he did not want to force his already defeated soldiers
fight against the violence of victorious enemy, and was content to
Hannibal's progress and block his way; but Marcus Minucius, his
and headstrong master of horse, persuaded the people that his own
should be equal to those of the dictator, whom he charged with
and timidity; on an unfavorable place, he offered battle with his part
of the divided army, and his legions were in great danger, but were
when Fabius Maximus arrived with his part of the army. After
this happy outcome, Minucius joined camp with the dictator and saluted
him as his father, ordering his soldiers to do the same.
Campania and was blocked by Fabius between the town of Casilinum and
Callicula, but Hannibal attached and lighted twigs on the horns of
which frightened the Roman garrison at Callicula. It fled and Hannibal
marched over the pass. He
also spared the land of dictator Quintus Fabius Maximus, although he
the entire countryside, so that his opponent was suspected of treason.
this, Aemilius Paullus and Terentius Varro became consul and under
leadership, a large defeat was suffered against Hannibal, at Cannae, in
which forty-five thousand Romans were killed, including consul Paullus,
and thirty former consuls, praetors,
Now, some desperate young noblemen
were plotting to leave Italy, but military tribune Publius Cornelius
(who was later called Africanus), held his drawn
sword over their
heads and announced that he would consider everyone an enemy who would
not swear what he dictated, and forced them to promise never to abandon
Because of manpower shortage, eight
thousand slaves were armed. Prisoners
of war were not bought free, although there was an opportunity.
It [book 22] also contains accounts
of panic and grief in the city, and fights in Hispania with a
Vestal virgins Opimia and Florentia
were condemned for unchastity.
People went out to greet and thank
Varro, because he had not despaired about the state.