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Livy: Periochae 28-30


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.
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Ex libro XXVIII

Res in Hispania prospere gestae a Silano, Scipionis legato, et ab L. Scipione fratre adversus Poenos, a P. Sulpicio procos. socio Attalo rege Asiae adversus Philippum, regem Macedonum, pro Aetolis referuntur.

Cum M. Livio et Claudio Neroni coss. triumphus decretus esset, Livius, qui in provincia sua rem gesserat, quadrigis invectus est, Nero, qui in collegae provinciam, ut victoriam eius adiuvaret, venerat, equo secutus est, et in hoc habitu plus gloriae reverentiaeque habuit; nam et plus in bello quam collega fecerat.

Ignis in aede Vestae neglegentia virginis quae non custodierat, extinctus est; caesa est flagro.

P. Scipio in Hispania cum Poenis debellavit XIIII anno eius belli, quinto post anno quam ierat, praeclusisque in totum possessione provinciae eius hostibus Hispanias recepit; et a Tarracone in Africam ad Syphacem, regem Massyliorum, transvectus foedus iunxit. Hasdrubal Gisgonis ibi cum eo in eodem lecto cenavit. Munus gladiatorium in honorem patris patruique Carthagini Nova edidit, non ex gladiatoribus, sed ex his qui aut in honorem ducis aut ex provocatione descendebant; in quo reguli fratres de regno ferro contenderunt.

Cum Gisia urbs obpugnaretur, oppidani liberos et coniuges rogo extructo occiderunt et se insuper praecipitaverunt.

Ipse Scipio, dum gravi morbo inplicitus est, seditionem in parte exercitus motam, confirmatus discussit rebellantesque Hispaniae populos coegit in deditionem venire. Et amicitia facta cum Masinissa, rege Numidarum, qui illi auxilium, si in Africam traiecisset, pollicebatur, cum Gaditanis quoque post discessum inde Magonis, cui Carthagine scriptum erat ut in Italiam traiceret, Romam reversus consulque creatus.

Africam provinciam petenti, contradicente Q. Fabio Maximo, Sicilia data est, permissumque ut in Africam traiceret, si id e re p. esse censeret. Mago, Hamilcaris filius, a minore Baleari insula, ubi hiemaverat, in Italiam traiecit.

From book 28

[207 BCE] It [book 28] tells about successes against the Carthaginians in Hispania by Silanus, deputy of Scipio, and Scipio's brother Lucius; and by proconsul Sulpicius and king Attalus [I Soter] of Asia, his ally, against king Philip[V] of Macedonia, on behalf of the Aetolians.

When a triumph was decreed for consuls Marcus Livius and Claudius Nero, Livius, in whose province that battle was won, rode in a chariot with four horses, and Nero, who had come to the province of his colleague to help him win the victory, followed him on horseback; but in this fashion, he received more glory and respect, because he had done more in the  war than his colleague.

The fire in the temple of Vesta went out due to the neglect by one of the Virgins, who did not keep watch over it; she was scourged.

[206] After completely shutting out the enemies and occupying the whole of Hispania, Publius [Cornelius] Scipio recovered the province an finally defeated the Carthaginians in the fourteenth year of the war, and in the fifth after his arrival. From Tarraco, he crossed to Africa and concluded a treaty with Syphax, king of the Massylians [=Masaeisylians]. Hasdrubal, the son of Gesco, dined with him on the same bed. In New Carthage, Scipio organized a gladiatorial contest to commemorate his father and uncle. But no gladiators took part: the fighters were men who descended into the arena to honor their commander or accept a challenge. Two princes, brothers, contested the possession of a kingdom.

When the town of Gisia was besieged, the citizens killed their children and wives on a pyre they had constructed, and threw themselves into the fire.

A rebellion broke out in a part of the army while Scipio himself was ill; when he recovered, he suppressed it and forced the [remaining] Spanish nations into surrender. He also concluded a treaty of friendship with king Massinissa of the Numidians, who promised him help when he should cross to Africa, and he also made friends with the people of Gades after the departure of Mago, who had been ordered to go to Italy. Scipio returned to Rome and was made consul.

[205] He asked permission to go to Africa, but Quintus Fabius Maximus opposed this, and Scipio therefore received Sicily and permission to go to Africa if he thought this was for the benefit of the state. Hamilcar's son Mago spent the winter on the smaller Balearic island, and crossed to Italy. 

Ex libro XXIX

Ex Sicilia C. Laelius in Africam a Scipione missus ingentem praedam reportavit et mandata Masinissae Scipioni exposuit querentis quod nondum exercitum in Africam traiecisset.

Bellum in Hispania finitum victore Romano, quod Indebilis excitaverat; ipse in acie occisus, Mandonius exposcentibus Romanis a suis deditus.

Magoni, qui Albingauni in Liguribus erat, ex Africa et militum ampla manus missa et pecuniae, quibus auxilia conduceret, praeceptumque ut se Hannibali coniungeret.

Scipio a Syracusis in Bruttios traiecit et Locros pulso Punico praesidio fugatoque Hannibale recepit.

Pax cum Philippo facta est.

Mater Idaea deportata est Romam a Pessinunte, oppido Phrygiae, carmine in libris Sibyllinis invento, pelli Italia alienigenam hostem posse, si mater Idaea deportata Romam esset. Tradita est autem Romanis per Attalum, regem Asiae. Lapis erat, quem matrem deum incolae dicebant. Excepit P. Scipio Nasica (Cn. filius eius qui in Hispania perierat), vir optimus a senatu iudicatus, adulescens nondum quaestorius, quoniam ita responsum iubebat ut id numen ab optimo viro exciperetur consecrareturque.

Locrenses legatos Romam miserunt, qui de impotentia Plemini legati quererentur, qui pecuniam Proserpinae sustulerat et liberos eorum ac coniuges stupraverat. In catenis Romam perductus in carcere est mortuus.

Cum falsus rumor de P. Scipione procos., qui in Sicilia erat, in urbem perlatus esset, tamquam is luxuriaretur, missis ob hoc legatis a senatu qui explorarent an ea vera essent, purgatus infamia Scipio in Africam permissu senatus traeicit.

Syphax, accepta in matrimonium filia Hasdrubalis Gisgonis, amicitiam, quam cum Scipione iunxerat, renuntiavit.

Masinissa, rex Massyliorum, dum pro Carthaginiensibus in Hispania militat, amisso patre Gala de regno exciderat. Quo per bellum saepe repetito aliquot proeliis a Syphace, rege Numidarum, victus in totum privatus est, et cum CC equitibus exsul Scipioni se iunxit et cum eo primo statim bello Hannonem, Hamilcaris filium, cum ampla manu occidit. Scipio adventu Hasdrubalis et Syphacis, qui prope cum centum milibus armatorum venerant, ab obsidione Uticae depulsus hiberna communiit.

Sempronius cos. in agro Crotoniensi prospere adversus Hannibalem pugnavit.

Inter censores M. Livium et Claudium Neronem notabilis discordia fuit. Nam et Claudius collegae equum ademit, quod a populo damnatus actusque in exilium fuerat, et Livius Claudio, quod falsum in se testimonium dixisset et quod non bona fide secum in gratiam redisset. Idem omnes tribus (extra unam) aerarias reliquit, quod et innocentem se damnassent et posthac consulem censoremque fecissent.

Lustrum a censoribus conditum est. Censa sunt civium capita CCXIIII milia.

From book 29

Gaius Laelius, sent by Scipio from Sicily to Africa, brought back enormous booty and gave Scipio Massinissa's messages, in which he complained that he had not yet sent his army to Africa.

When Indebilis provoked a war in Hispania, it ended with a Roman victory; he himself was killed in action, and Mandonius was handed over by his relatives when the Romans asked for it.

Mago, who was at Albingaunum in Liguria, received many soldiers and money to hire auxiliaries, and was ordered to join Hannibal.

Scipio crossed from Sicily to Bruttium and recaptured Locri by putting its Carthaginian garrison to flight and routing Hannibal.

A peace treaty was concluded with Philip [V of Macedonia].

[204] In accordance with an oracle found in the Sibylline books, which stated that a foreign invader would be expelled if the Idaean Mother [Cybele] had been brought to Rome, the Idaean Mother was brought to Rome from the Phrygian town PessinusShe was given to the Romans by king Attalus [I Soter] of Asia. According to the natives, the Mother of the gods was a stone. Because the oracle had ordered that the deity had to be received and consecrated by the best man, she was received by Publius [Cornelius] Scipio Nasica (son of the Gnaeus who had perished in Hispania), who was judged by the Senate to be the best man, although he was young and had not even reached the quaestorship.

The Locrians sent envoys to Rome to complain about the shocking behavior of Pleminius, who had confiscated the money of Prosepina, and had outraged their children and wives [more...]. In chains, he was sent to Rome, where he died in jail.

When a false rumor concerning proconsul Publius [Cornelius] Scipio, who was on Sicily, circulated in the city, concerning his life in luxury, the Senate sent envoys to investigate the truth of the rumor; Scipio was cleared of the accusation and with the Senate's permission, he crossed to Africa.

Syphax, who had married a daughter of Hasdrubal, son of Gesco, renounced his friendship with Scipio.

King Massinissa of the Massylians, who had fought for the Carthaginians in Hispania, had been excluded from the kingship when he lost his father Gala. He had repeatedly tried to regain it by war, but had in several battles been defeated by king Syphax of Numidia, and had lost everything. As an exile he and two hundred cavalry joined Scipio, and with his help, Scipio defeated Hanno, the son of Hamilcar, together with many soldiers, right at the beginning of the war.When Hasdrubal, Syphax, and hundred thousand men approached, Scipio was forced to raise the siege of Utica, and settle in a winter camp.

Consul Sempronius successfully fought against Hannibal in the country of Croton.

There was a remarkable quarrel between the two censors Marcus Livius and Claudius Nero. Because on the one hand, Claudius took away the [public] horse from his colleague because he had once been condemned and had been exiled by the people, and on the other hand Livius did the same to Claudius, because he had spoken falsely about him and had been insincere when they had been reconciled. He also registered all districts (except for one) as tax payers of the lowest order, because they had once condemned him, although he had been innocent and they had later made him consul and censor.

The censors celebrated the lustrum ceremony.  214,000 citizens were registered. 

Ex libro XXX

Scipio in Africa Carthaginienses et eumdem Syphacem, Numidiae regem, Hasdrubalemque pluribus proeliis vicit adiuvante Masinissa, bina hostium castra expugnavit, in quibus XL milia hominum ferro ignique consumpta sunt. Syphacem per C. Laelium et Masinissam cepit.

Masinissa Sophonibam, uxorem Syphacis, filiam Hasdrubalis, captam statim adamavit et nuptiis factis uxorem habuit; castigatus a Scipione venenum ei misit, quo illa hausto decessit.

Effectumque multis Scipionis victoriis ut Carthaginienses in desperationem acti in auxilium publicae salutis Hannibalem evocarent. Isque anno XVI Italia decedens in Africam traiecit temptavitque per conloquium pacem cum Scipione componere, et cum de condicionibus pacis non convenisset, acie victus est.

Pax Carthaginiensibus petentibus data est. Hannibal Gisgonem pacem dissuadentem manu sua detraxit, excusata deinde temeritate facti ipse pacem suasit.

Masinissae regnum restitutum est.

Reversus in urbem Scipio amplissimum nobilissimumque egit triumphum, quem Q. Terentius Culleo senator pilleatus secutus est. Scipio Africanus incertum militari prius favore an populari aura ita cognominatus sit. Primus certe hic imperator victae nomine a se gentis nobilitatus est.

Mago bello quo in agro Insubrum cum Romanis conflixerat vulneratus, dum in Africam per legatos revocatis revertitur, ex vulnere mortuus est.

From book 30

[203] In Africa, Scipio, aided by Massinissa, defeated the Carthaginians, the aforementioned king Syphax of Numidia, and Hasdrubal in several engagements, and captured two camps. Forty thousand people were killed by fire and fight. Syphax was captured by Gaius Laelius and Massinissa.

Massinissa immediately fell in love with Sophoniba, the capive wife of Syphax and daughter of Hasdrubal, married her and had her as his wife; he was rebuked by Scipio, sent her poison, she drank it, and died.

Because of Scipio's many victories, the desperate Carthaginians recalled Hannibal to protect the state. [202] In the sixteenth year of his invasion of Italy, he withdrew, crossed to Africa and tried to organize a peace conference with Scipio, and when they could not agree about the peace conditions, he was defeated in battle.

When the Carthaginians sued for peace, it was granted. When Gesco tried to dissuade the people from the peace, Hannibal pulled him down with his hand, apologized for his behavior, and argued for peace.

Massinissa was given back his kingdom.

[201] After he had returned to the city, Scipio celebrated a very large and distinguished triumph, followed by the senator Quintus Terentius Culleo, who wore a liberty cap. It is unclear whether Scipio received the surname Africanus from his popularity with the soldiers or from the fickle favor of the people, but he certainly was the first commander to receive a surname derived from the conquered nation.

In the country of the Insubres, Mago was wounded in a war against the Romans, was recalled to Africa by envoys, but died from his wound during the return voyage.

to the Periochae of books 31-35
 
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