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Livy: Periochae 41-45


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.
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Ex libro XLI

Ignis in aede Vestae extinctus est.

Tib. Sempronius Gracchus procos. Celtiberos victos in deditionem accepit, monimentumque operum suorum Gracchurim, oppidum in Hispania, constituit. Et a Postumio Albino procos. Vaccaei ac Lusitani subacti sunt. Uterque triumphavit.

Antiochus, Antiochi filius, obses a patre Romanis datus, mortuo fratre Seleuco qui patri defuncto successerat, in regnum Syriae ab urbe dimissus. Qui praeter religionem, qua multa templa magnifica multis sociis fecit, Athenis Iovis Olympi et Antiochiae Capitolini, vilissimum regem egit.

Lustrum a censoribus conditum est. Censa sunt civium capita CCLVIII milia CCXCIIII.

Q. Voconius Saxa tr. pl. legem tulit, nequis mulierem heredem institueret. Suasit legem M. Cato. (Extat oratio eius.)

Praeterea res adversus Liguras et Histros et Sardos et Celtiberos a compluribus ducibus prospere gestas et initia belli Macedonici continet, quod Perseus, Philippi filius, moliebatur. Miserat ad Carthaginienses legationem et ab his nocte audita erat. Sed et alias Graeciae civitates sollicitabat.

From book41

The fire in the temple of Vesta was extinguished.

[179 BCE] Proconsul Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus accepted the surrender of the defeated Celtiberians, and to commemorate his successes, he founded the town of Gracchuris in Hispania. And by proconsul Postumius Albinus, the Vaccaeans and Lusitanians were subdued. Both men celebrated a triumph.

[175] Antiochus [IV Epiphanes], the son who had been given by Antiochus [III the Great] as hostage to the Romans, was sent to the kingdom of Syria at the death of his brother Seleucus [IV Philopator], to whom his father had left the kingdom. He turned out to be a very bad king, except for religion, because he built many splendid temples in the countries of his allies, like that of the Olympian Jupiter in Athens and the Capitoline Jupiter in Antioch.

The censors performed the lustrum ceremony.  258,294 citizens were registered.

Tribune of the plebs Quintus Voconius Saxa carried a law that forbade women to inherit. Marcus [Porcius] Cato pleaded for this law. (His speech still exists.)

It [book 41] also contains accounts of successful wars by several leaders against the Ligurians, Histrians, Sardinians and Celtiberans, and the beginning of the Macedonian war, which was provoked by [king] Perseus, the son of PhilipHe sent an embassy to the Carthaginians that was received during the night, but he also solicited help from Greek cities.

Ex libro XLII

Q. Fulvius Flaccus censor templum Iunonis Laciniae tegulis marmoreis spoliavit, ut aedem, quam dedicabat, tegeret. Tegulae ex S.C. reportatae.

Eumenes, Asiae rex, in senatu de Perseo, Macedoniae rege, questus est, cuius iniuriae in populum R. referuntur. Ob quas bello ei indicto P. Licinius Crassus cos., cui mandatum erat, in Macedoniam transiit levibusque expeditionibus, equestribus proeliis, in Thessalia cum Perseo [felici] eventu pugnavit.

Inter Masinissam et Carthaginienses de agro fuit lis. Dies his a senatu ad disceptandum datus.

Legati missi ad socias civitates regesque rogandos ut in fide permanerent, dubitantibus Rhodiis.

Lustrum a censoribus conditum est. Censa sunt civium capita CCLXVII milia CCXXXI.

Res praeterea adversus Corsos et Liguras prospere gestas continet.

From book 42

[173] Censor Quintus Fulvius Flaccus removed the marble slabs from the temple of Juno Lacinia that covered the temple that he had dedicated. The slabs were brought back by order of the Senate.

[172] King Eumenes [II Soter] of Asia was interviewed in the Senate about [king] Perseus of Macedonia, whose unjust acts against the Roman people are also recorded [in book 42]. Because of these, war was declared upon him and consul Publius Licinius Crassus, who was ordered to do so, proceeded to Macedonia, and [successfully] fought with Perseus in small expeditions and cavalry engagements in Thessaly.

There was a dispute between [king] Massinissa [of Numidia] and the Carthaginians about a piece of land. The Senate proposed them a day to discuss the problem.

[171] Envoys were sent to the allied towns and kings to ask them to remain loyal. The Rhodians were in doubt.

The censors performed the lustrum ceremony.  267,231 citizens were registered.

It [book 42] also contains accounts of successful wars against the Corsicans and Ligurians.

Ex libro XLIII

Praetores aliquot eo quod avare et crudeliter provincias administraverant, damnati sunt.

P. Licinius Crassus procos. complures in Graecia urbes expugnavit et crudeliter corripuit. Ob id captivi qui ab eo sub corona venierant ex S.C. postea restituti sunt. Item a praefectis classium Romanarum multa impotenter in socios facta.

Res a Perse rege in Thracia prospere gestas continet victis Dardanis et Illyrico, cuius rex erat Gentius.

Motus, qui in Hispania ab Olonico factus erat, ipso interempto consedit.

M. Aemilius Lepidus a censoribus princeps senatus lectus.

From book 43

Several praetors were condemned because they had ruled their provinces with avarice and cruelty.

Proconsul Publius Licinius Crassus took several Greek towns and sacked them cruelly. Because of this, the captives which he had sold as slaves were later released by senatorial decree.The prefects of the Roman navy also behaved without moderation towards the allies.

It [book 43] also contains an account of successful wars by king Perseus [of Macedonia], who defeated the Dardanians and Illyricum, which was ruled by king Gentius.

[170] The disturbance created in Hispania by Olonicus was terminated when he was killed.

[169] The censors chose Marcus Aemilius Lepidus as the first among the senators.

Ex libro XLIV

Q. Marcius Philippus per invios saltus penetravit Macedoniam et complures urbes occupavit.

Rhodii miserunt legatos Romam minantes ut Perseo auxilio essent, nisi populus R. cum illo pacem atque amicitiam iungeret. Indigne id latum. Cum id bellum L. Aemilio Paulo, sequentis anni cos. iterum mandatum esset, Paulus in contione precatus ut, quidquid diri populo R. immineret, in suam domum converteretur, et in Macedoniam profectus vicit Persen totamque Macedoniam in potestatem redegit. Antequam confligeret, praedixit exercitui ne miraretur quod luna proxima nocte defectura erat.

Gentius quoque, rex Illyricorum, cum rebellasset, a L. Anicio praetore victus venit in deditionem et cum uxore ac liberis et propinquis Romam missus.

Legati Alexandrini a Cleopatra et Ptolemaeo regibus venerunt querentes de Antiocho, rege Syriae, quod is bellum inferret.

Perseus sollicitatis in auxilium Eumene, rege Pergami, et Gentio, rege Illyricorum, quia iis pecuniam quam promiserat non dabat, relictus ab his est.

From book 44

Quintus Marcius Philippus entered Macedonia through an inaccessible defile and captured several towns.

The Rhodians sent envoys, threatening to support [king] Perseus [of Macedonia] if the Roman people did not conclude a treaty of peace and friendship with them, which provoked indignation. [168] When, during the next year, the war was given to Lucius Aemilius Paullus, consul for the second time, Paullus, after having prayed in a gathering that whatever threatened the Roman people should befall his family, proceeded to Macedonia, completely defeated Perseus and occupied all of Macedonia. Before the battle [of Pydna], he told his army that they should not be surprised if the moon should be eclipsed during the night [21 June 168].

When king Gentius of the Illyrians revolted, he was also defeated, by praetor Lucius Anicius, and surrendered with his wife and children and relatives and was sent to Rome.

Envoys were sent from Alexandria, on behalf of queen Cleopatra [II] and king Ptolemy [VI Philometor], to complain about king Antiochus [IV Epiphanes], who had attacked them.

When Perseus, who had asked for help from king Eumenes [II Soter] of Pergamon and king Gentius of Illyricum, did not pay the money he had promised, was left by them.

Ex libro XLV

Perseus ab Aemilio Paulo in Samothace captus est.

Cum Antiochus, Syriae rex, Ptolemaeum et Cleopatram, Aegypti reges, obsideret et missis ad eum a senatu legatis, qui iuberent ab solo regis absisteret, editisque mandatis consideraturum se quid faciendum esset, respondisset, unus ex legatis Popilius virga regem circumscripsit iussitque, ante quam circulo excederet, responsum daret. Qua asperitate effecit ut Antiochus bellum omitteret.

Legationes gratulantium populorum atque regum in senatu admissae, Rhodiorum, qui eo bello contra populum R. faverant, exclusa. Postera die cum de eo quaereretur ut his bellum indiceretur, causam in senatu patriae suae legati egerunt; nec tamquam socii, nec tamquam hostes dimissi.

Macedonia in provinciae formam redacta Aemilius Paulus repugnantibus militibus ipsius propter minorem praedam et contradicente Servio Sulpicio Galba triumphavit et Persen cum tribus filiis duxit ante currum. Cuius triumphi laetitia ne solida ei contingeret, duorum filiorum funeribus insignita est, quorum alterius mors triumphum patris praecessit, alterius secuta est.

Lustrum a censoribus conditum est. Censa sunt civium capita CCCXII milia DCCCV.

Prusias, Bithyniae rex, Romam, ut senatui gratias ageret ob victoriam ex Macedonia partam, venit et Nicomeden filium senatui commendavit. Rex plenus adulationis libertum se populi R. dicebat.

From book 45

Perseus was captured by Aemilius Paullus at Samothrace.

When king Antiochus [IV Epiphanes] of Syria, besieged king Ptolemy [VI Philometor] and queen Cleopatra [II] of Egypt, and envoys were sent by the Senate to order Antiochus to leave the country of Ptolemy, and Antiochus had received the message and replied that he would consider what to do, one of the envoys, Popilius, drew a circle around the king with his staff, and ordered that the king should reply before he left the circle. As a result of this rude behavior, Antiochus abandoned the war.

[167] Embassies of nations and kings were permitted in the Senate to congratulate [Rome with its Macedonian victory], but the Rhodians were excluded because they had been against the Roman people during this war. When the next day a declaration of war was discussed, the envoys pleaded for their country, and were sent away, neither as allies, nor as enemies.

When Macedonia had been organized as a province, Aemilius Paullus celebrated a triumph, although his own soldiers were against it because they had received little booty and Servius Sulpicius Galba was against it as well; Perseus and his three children walked in front of the chariot. As if to ensure that Paullus would not enjoy the triumph completely, it was between the funerals of his two sons: one of them died before the triumph of his father, the other afterwards.

The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 312,805 citizens were registered.

King Prusias [II] of Bithynia came to Rome to thank the Senate for its victory over Macedonia, and recommended his son Nicomedes to the Senate. The king, who was full of admiration, declared himself to be a freedman of the Roman people.

to the Periochae of books 46-47
 
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