conditum est. Censa
sunt civium capita CCCXXIIII milia.
belli referuntur. Cum
in finibus Carthaginiensium ingens Numidarum exercitus duce
Syphacis nepote, diceretur esse, M. Porcius Cato suasit ut
qui exercitum specie contra Masinissam, re contra Romanos accitum in
haberent, bellum indiceretur. Contra
dicente P. Cornelio Nasica placuit legatos mitti Carthaginem, qui
quid ageretur. Castigato
senatu Carthaginiensium, quod contra foedus et exercitum et navales
haberent, pacem inter eos et Masinissam facere voluerunt, Masinissa
de quo lis erat, cedente. Sed
Gisgo, Hamilcaris filius, homo seditiosus qui tum in magistratu erat,
senatus pariturum se iudicio legatis dixisset, ita populum concitavit
adversus Romanos suadendo, ut legatos, quo minus violarentur, fuga
nuntiantes infestum iam senatum Carthaginiensibus infestiorem fecerunt.
filii in praetura mortui funus tenuissimo ut potuit (nam pauper erat)
Andriscus, qui se Persei filium,
regis quondam Macedoniae, ingenti adseveratione mentiretur, Romam
M. Aemilius Lepidus, qui princeps
senatus sextis iam censoribus lectus erat, antequam expiraret,
filiis lecto se strato linteis sine purpura efferrent, in reliquum
ne plus quam aeris decies consumerent: imaginum specie, non sumptibus
magnorum virorum funera solere.
De veneficiis quaesitum. Publilia
et Licinia, nobiles feminae, quae viros suos consulares necasse
cognita causa, cum praetori praedes vades dedissent, cognatorum decreto
Gulussa, Masinissae filius, nuntiavit
Carthagine dilectus agi, classem conparari et haud dubie bellum
Cato suaderet ut his bellum indiceretur, P. Cornelio Nasica dicente
temere faciundum, placuit X legatos mitti exploratum.
L. Licinius Lucullus A. Postumius
Albinus coss. cum dilectum severe agerent nec quemquam gratia
ab tribunis pl., qui pro amicis suis vacationem impetrare non poterant,
in carcerem coniecti sunt.
Cum Hispaniense bellum parum prospere
aliquotiens gestum ita confudisset civitatem Romanam, ut ne hi quidem
qui aut tribunatum exciperent aut legati ire vellent, P. Cornelius
processit et excepturum se militiae genus, quodcumque imperatum esset,
professus est. Quo exemplo omnes
ad studium militandi concitavit.
Lucullus cos., cum Claudius Marcellus,
cui successerat, pacasse omnes Celtiberiae populos videretur, Vaccaeos
et Cantabros et alias incognitas adhuc in Hispania gentes
P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, L. Pauli filius, Africani nepos, set
provocatorem barbarum tribunus militum occidit et in expugnatione
urbis maius etiamnunc periculum adiit. Nam
murum primus transcendit.
Servius Sulpicius Galba praetor
male adversus Lusitanos pugnavit.
Cum legati ex Africa cum oratoribus
Carthaginiensium et Gulussa, Masinissae filio, redissent dicerentque et
exercitum se et classem Carthagine deprehendisse, perrogari sententias
placuit. Catone et aliis principibus
senatus suadentibus ut in Africam confestim transportaretur exercitus,
quoniam Cornelius Nasica dicebat nondum sibi iustam causam belli
placuit ut bello abstinerent, si Carthaginienses classem exussissent et
exercitum dimisissent; si minus, proximi consules de bello Punico
Cum locatum a censoribus theatrum
exstrueretur, P. Cornelio Nasica auctore tamquam inutile et nociturum
moribus ex S.C. destructum est populusque aliquamdiu stans ludos
Carthaginienses cum adversus foedus
bellum Masinissae intulissent, victi ab eo annos habente XCII et sine
mandere et siccum gustare panem tantum solito insuper Romanum bellum
Motus praeterea Syriae et bella
inter reges gesta referuntur. Inter
quos motus Demetrius, Syriae rex, occisus est.
|From book 48
BCE] The censors
performed the lustrum
citizens were registered.
The causes of
Third Punic War are described. It
was said that a very large Numidian army, commanded by Arcobarzanes,
was on Carthaginian
soil, and Marcus Porcius Cato argued that although this force was
directed against Massinissa,
it was in fact against the Romans, and that consequently, war had to be
Cornelius Nasica defended the opposite, and it was agreed that envoys
to be sent to Carthage, to see what was going on. They
rebuked the Carthaginian Senate because it had, contrary to the treaty,
collected an army and timber to build ships, and proposed to make peace
between Carthage and Massinissa, because Masinissa was evacuating the
piece of land. But
Hamilcar's son Gesco, a riotous man who occupied an office, provoked
populace to wage war against the Romans, so that when the
Senate announced it would comply with the Roman wishes, the envoys had
to flee to escape violence. When
they told this, they made the [Roman] Senate,
already hostile towards the Carthaginians, even more hostile.
Cato gave his son, who had died during his praetorship,
a cheap funeral according to his means (because he was poor).
Andriscus, who pretended persistently
that he was the son of Perseus,
the former king of Macedonia,
was sent to Rome.
Before he died, Marcus Aemilius
Lepidus, who had been chosen as first among the senators by six pairs
censors, ordered his sons that they should carry his bier to the pyre
with linens without purple, and they were not to spend more than a
for the remainder: the images [of ancestors] and not the expenditure
enhance the funerals of great men.
There was an investigation of
noble women Publilia and Licinia were accused of murdering their
after the hearing, they assigned real estate as bail to the praetor,
were executed by a decision of their relatives.
Gulussa, the son of Massinissa,
told that a levy was conducted in Carthage, a navy was being built, and
that without any doubt, they were preparing for war. When
Cato argued that war should be declared, and Publius Cornelius Nasica
that it was better to do nothing too fast, it was decided to send ten
consuls Lucius Licinius Lucullus and Aulus Postumius Albinus recruited
their army with great strictness and favored no one with an exemption,
they were imprisoned by the tribunes
of the plebs,
because they were unable to obtain exemptions for their friends.
The Spanish War had been waged unsuccessfully
and resulted in such a great confusion among the Roman citizens that no
one wanted to go there as tribune or commander, but Publius Cornelius
Aemilianus came forward and said he would accept any kind of military
to which he should be assigned. This
example gave everyone an appetite for war.
Although Claudius Marcellus appeared
to have pacified all Celtiberian nations, his successor consul Lucullus
subdued the Vaccaeans and Cantabrians and several other hitherto
nations in Hispania. Here, tribune
Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, the son of Lucius [Aemilius]
and the grandson of [Publius Cornelius Scipio] Africanus (although by
killed a barbarian challenger, and added an even greater danger when
town of Intercatia was stormed, because
he was the first to climb the wall.
Praetor Servius Sulpicius unsuccessfully
fought against the Lusitanians.
The envoys returned from Africa
with Carthaginian ambassadors and Massinissa's son Gulussa, saying they
had seen how an army and navy were built in Carthage, and it was
to ask for opinions [of all senators]. While
Cato and other influential senators argued that an army should
be sent to Africa, Cornelius Nasica said that it still did not seem to
be a justified war, and it was agreed to refrain from war if the
would burn their ships and dismiss their army; if they did less, the
pair of consuls should put the Punic War on the agenda.
When a theater, contracted for by
the censors, was built, Publius Cornelius Nasica was the author of a
decree that this building, which was so useless and dangerous for the
morals, should be destroyed; for some time, the people had to stand to
watch theatrical performances.
When the Carthaginians declared
war upon Massinissa and broke the treaty, they were beaten by this man
(who was ninety-two years old and accustomed to eat and enjoy dry bread
without a relish) and incurred a war against the Romans.
It [book 48] also contains an account
of the situation in Syria
and the war waged between its kings. 
this turmoil, the Syrian king Demetrius
[I Soter] was killed.
initium altero et sescentesimo ab urbe condita anno, intra quintum
quam erat coeptum, consummati.
Catonem et Scipionem Nasicam, quorum alter sapientissimus vir in
habebatur, alter optimus vir etiam iudicatus a senatu erat, diversis
sententiis est, Catone suadente bellum et ut tolleretur delereturque
Nasica dissuadente. Placuit
tamen, quod contra foedus naves haberent, quod exercitum extra fines
quod socio populi R. et amico Masinissae arma intulissent, quod filium
eius, Gulussam, qui cum legatis Romanis erat, in oppidum non
bellum his indici.
copiae in naves imponerentur, Uticenses legati Romam venerunt se suaque
legatio velut omen grata patribus, acerba Carthaginiensibus fuit.
ad Tarentum ex praecepto librorum facti, qui ante annum centesimum
Punico bello, quingentesimo et altero anno ab urbe condita facti erant.
venerunt, per quos se Carthaginienses dedebant. Catonis
sententia evicit ut in decreto perstaretur et ut consules quam primum
bellum profiscerentur. Qui
ubi in Africam transierunt, acceptis quos imperaverant CCC obsidibus et
armis omnibus instrumentisque belli, si qua Carthagine erant, cum ex
patrum iuberent, ut in alium locum, dum a mari X milia passuum ne minus
remotum, oppidum facerent, indignitate rei ad bellandum Carthaginienses
Obsideri obpugnarique coepta est
Carthago a L. Marcio M'. Manilio coss. In
qua obpugnatione cum neglectos ab una parte muros duo tribuni temere
cohortibus suis inrupissent et ab oppidanis graviter caederentur, a
Orfiniato expliciti sunt. Per
quem et castellum Romanorum, quod nocte expugnabant, paucis equitibus
liberatum est castrorumque, quae Carthaginienses omnibus copiis ab urbe
pariter egressi obpugnabant, liberatorum is ipse praecipuam gloriam
cum ab inrita obpugnatione
Carthaginis consul (alter enim Romam ad comitia ierat) exercitum
adversus Hasdrubalem (cum ampla manu saltum iniquum insederat) suasit
consuli ne tam iniquo loco confligeret. Victus
deinde conplurium, qui et prudentiae et virtuti eius invidebant,
et ipse saltum ingressus est. Cum,
sicut praedixerat, fusus fugatusque esset Romanus exercitus et duae
ab hoste obsiderentur, cum paucis equitum turmis in saltum reversus
eas et incolumes reduxit. Quam
virtutem eius et Cato, vir promptioris ad vituperandum linguae, in
sic prosecutus est ut diceret reliquos, qui in Africa militarent,
volitare, Scipionem vigere, et populus R. eo favore complexus ut
plurimae eum tribus consulem scriberent, cum hoc per aetatem non
Cum L. Scribonius tr. pl. rogationem
promulgasset, ut Lusitani, qui in fidem populo R. dediti ab Servio
in Galliam venissent, in libertatem restituerentur, M. Cato acerrime
oratio in Annalibus ipsius inclusa.) Q.
Fulvius Nobilior ei, saepe ab eo in senatu laceratus, respondit pro
ipse quoque Galba cum se damnari videret, complexus duos filios
et Sulpicii Galli filium, cuius tutor erat, ita miserabiliter pro se
est ut rogatio antiquaretur. (Exstant
tres orationes eius, duae adversus Libonem tr. pl. rogationemque eius
de Lusitanis, una contra L. Cornelium Cethegum, in qua Lusitanos prope
se castra habentis caesos fatetur, quod compertum habuerit, equo atque
homine suo ritu immolatis per speciem pacis adoriri exercitum suum in
Andriscus quidam, ultimae sortis
homo, Persei se regis filium ferens et mutato nomine Philippus vocatus
cum ab urbe Romana, quo illum Demetrius, Syriae rex, ob hoc ipsum
miserat, clam profugisset, multis ad falsam eius fabulam (velut ad
coeuntibus, contracto exercitu totam Macedoniam aut voluntate
aut armis occupavit.
Fabulam autem talem finxerat: ex
paelice se et Perseo rege ortum traditum educandum Cretensi cuidam
ut in belli casus quod ille cum Romanis gereret, aliquod velut semen
stirpis exstaret. Hydramyti se
educatum usque ad XII aetatis annum, patrem eum esse credentem a quo
ignarum generis fuisse sui. Adfecto
deinde eo, cum prope ad ultimum finem vitae esset, detectam tandem sibi
originem suam falsaeque matri libellum datum signo Persei regis
quem sibi traderet, cum ad puberem aetatem venisset, obtestationesque
adiectas, ut res in occultato ad id tempus servaretur. Pubescenti
libellum traditum in quo relicti sibi duo thesauri a patre
scienti mulierem se subditum esse, veram stirpem ignoranti edidisse
atque obtestatam, ut prius quam manaret ad Eumenen res, Perseo
excederet his locis, ne interficeretur. Eo
se exterritum, simul sperantem aliquod a Demetrio auxilium in Syriam se
contulisse atque ibi primum quis esset palam expromere ausum.
|From book 49
beginning of the Third Punic War was in the six hundred and second year
after the founding of Rome, and came to an end five years after its
Porcius Cato and Scipio Nasica, of which the former was the most
man in the city and the latter considered to be the best man in the
was a debate of opposing opinions, in which Cato argued for and Nasica
against war and the removal and sack of Carthage. It
was decided to declare war on Carthage, because the Carthaginians had,
contrary to the treaty, ships, because they had sent an army outside
territory, because they had waged war against Massinissa, an ally and
of the Roman people, and because they had refused to receive in their
Massinissa's son Gulussa (who had been with the Roman envoys).
had boarded their ships, Utican envoys came to Rome, to surrender
and everything they owned.This
embassy was received as a good omen by the senators, and as a bad omen
The games of
Pater took place at the Tarentum, in accordance with the [Sibylline]
Similar festivities had taken place hundred year before, at the
of the First Punic War, in the five hundred and second year since the
of the city.
to Rome to surrender Carthage. Cato's
opinion prevailed that the declaration of war was to be maintained and
that the consuls, as had been agreed, would proceed to the
they had crossed into Africa, they received the three hundred hostages
they had demanded and all the weapons and war engines that were in
and demanded on the authority of the Senate that the Carthaginians
their city on another site, which was to be no less than 15 kilometers
from the sea. These offensive demands forced the Carthaginians to war.
The beginning of the siege and the
attack of Carthage were organized by consuls Lucius Marcius
and Manius Manilius. During the
siege, two tribunes rashly broke through a carelessly defended wall and
suffered greatly from the inhabitants, but were relieved by Scipio
[Africanus]. With the help of
a few cavalry, he also relieved a Roman fort that had been attacked by
night, and he received the greatest glory from the liberation of Roman
camps which the Carthaginians, sallying in full force from the city,
Besides, when the consul (his colleague
had returned to Rome for the elections) led the army against Hasdrubal
(who had occupied with many troops an inaccessible pass), he convinced
the consul first not to attack on this inaccessible place. However,
the opinions of the others, who were jealous of his intelligence and
prevailed, and he entered the pass himself, and
when -as he had predicted- the Roman army was defeated and routed and
subunits were besieged by the enemy, he returned with a few cavalry
relieved them, and brought them back unharmed. In
the Senate, his valor was praised by even Cato, a man whose tongue was
better suited for criticism, but now said that the others fighting in
were mere spirits, whereas Scipio was alive; and the Roman people
him with so much enthusiasm that most districts elected him as consul,
although his age did not allow this.
When Lucius Scribonius, a tribune
of the plebs, proposed a law that the Lusitanians, who had surrendered
to the Roman people but had been sold [into slavery] by Servius
Galba in Gaul, would be liberated, Marcus Porcius Cato supported him
speech still exists and is included in his Annals.) Quintus
Fulvius Nobilior, who had often been assailed by Cato in the Senate,
for Galba; and Galba himself, seeing that he was about to be condemned,
embracing his two young sons and the son of Sulpicius Gallus, whose
he was, spoke so pitiably in his own defense, that the case was
of his speeches still exist: two against tribune Libo in the Lusitanian
case, and one against Lucius Cornelius Cethegus, in which he admits
during a truce, he had massacred the Lusitanians near his camp because,
as he explains, he had found out that they had sacrificed a man and a
which according to their custom meant that they were preparing an
A certain Andriscus, a man of the
lowest kind, pretending to be a son of king Perseus, changed his name
Philip, and secretly fled from the city of Rome, to which king
[I Soter] of Syria had sent him, precisely because of this lie; many
were attracted by his false story (as if it were true), he gathered an
army and occupied all of Macedonia, whether the people wanted it or
He told the following story: born
as the son of king Perseus and a courtesan, he had been handed over for
education to a certain Cretan, so that, in this situation of war
the Romans, some scion of the royal stock would survive. Without
knowledge of his family and believing that the man who taught him was
father, he had been educated at Adramyttion until he was twelve years
this man fell ill and was close to the end of his life, he finally told
Andriscus about his origin and gave his "mother" a writing that had
sealed by king Perseus, which she should give the boy when he reached
and the teacher added that everything had to be kept secret until that
moment. When he reached maturity,
Andriscus received the writing, from which he learned that his father
left him two treasures. Until
then he had only known that he was a foster son and had been unaware
his real ancestry; now his foster mother told him about his lineage and
begged him to avoid being assassinated by departing from the country
the news reached [king] Eumenes
[II Soter of Pergamon], an enemy of Perseus. Frightened
and hoping to obtain assistance from Demetrius, he went to Syria, where
he had declared for the first time who he was.
illam invadere armis atque occupare Pseudophilippus vellet, per legatos
Romanorum auxiliis Achaeorum defensa est.
omnium humillimorumque vitiorum, a Nicomede filio adiuvante Attalo,
Pergami, occisus, habebat alterum filium (qui pro superiore ordine
enatum habuisse unum os continens dicitur). Cum
III legati ad pacem inter Nicomedem et Prusiam faciendam ab Romanis
essent, cum unus ex his multis cicatricibus sartum caput haberet, alter
pedibus aeger esset, tertius ingenio socors haberetur, M. Cato dixit
in legationem, nec caput nec pedes nec cor habere.
eo tempore stirpe generis parem Macedonum regis, inertia socordiaque
Prusiae regem habebat, iacente eo in ganea et lustris Hammonius
per quem et amici omnes regis et Laodice regina et Antigonus, Demetri
rex, maior XC annis decessit, vir insignis. Inter
cetera iuvenalia opera, quae ad ultimum edidit, adeo etiam nervis in
viguit, ut post sextum et octogesimum annum filium genuerit. Inter
tres liberos eius (maximus natu Micipsa, Gulussa, Mastanabal, qui etiam
Graecis litteris eruditus erat) P. Scipio Aemilianus, cum commune his
pater reliquisset et dividere eos arbitro Scipione iussisset, partes
praefecto equitum Carthaginiensium, viro forti et cuius praecipua opera
Poeni utebantur, persuasit ut ad Romanos cum equitatu suo transiret.
qui ad Masinissam missi erant, M. Claudius Marcellus cohorta tempestate
fluctibus obrutus est.
Carthaginienses Hasdrubalem, Masinissae
nepotem, quem praetorem habebant, hominem proditionis suspectum, in
occiderunt; quae suspicio inde manavit, quod propinquus esset Gulussae
Romanorum auxilia iuvantis.
P. Scipio Aemilianus cum aedilitatem
peteret, consul a populo dictus. Quoniam
per annos consuli fieri non licebat, cum magno certamine suffragantis
et repugnantibus ei aliquamdiu patribus, legibus solutus et consul
M'. Manilius aliquot urbes circumpositas
Pseudophilippus in Macedonia, caeso
cum exercitu P. Iuventio praetore, ab Q. Caecilio victus captusque est,
et revicta Macedonia.
|From book 50
the false Philip wanted to invade and occupy with his armies, was
by Roman envoys and Achaean allies.
the Hunter] of Bithynia, a man full of the lowest moral defects, was
by his son Nicomedes [Epiphanes], who received help from king Attalus
[II] of Pergamon, but had a second son (who is said to have had one
bone growing in place of his upper teeth). When
the Romans sent three envoys to negotiate peace between Nicomedes and
of which the first had many scars on his head, the second was gouty,
the third was considered to have a slow mind, Marcus [Porcius] Cato
that this was embassy without head, feet, and brains.
In Syria, which
had until then had a king [Alexander
I Balas] who was equal to that of Macedonia in ancestry but
in laziness and slowness, and who took his ease in kitchens and
Hammonius ruled, and he murdered all friends of the king, and queen
and Demetrius' son Antigonus.
than ninety years old, king Massinissa of Numidia died, a remarkable
was so vigorous that among the other youthful exploits that he
during his final years, he was still sexually active and begot a son
he was eighty-six. He
left his undivided kingdom to his three sons (Micipsa the eldest,
and Mastanabal, who was well-versed in Greek literature), and ordered
to divide it according to the instructions of Publius [Cornelius]
Aemilianus, who accordingly assigned the part of the kingdom they were
The same man
Phameas Himilco, the commander of the Carthaginian cavalry and a man of
valor who was important to the Carthaginians, to join the Romans with
envoys that were sent to Massinissa, Marcus Claudius Marcellus drowned
during a tempest at sea.
In their Senate room, the Carthaginians
killed Hasdrubal, a grandson of Massinissa who served them as general,
because they believed he was a traitor. Their suspicion was based on
relation to the Romans' ally Gulussa.
When Publius [Cornelius] Scipio
Aemilianus ran for aedile,
he was elected consul by the people. Because
he could not lawfully be made consul as he was under age, there was a
struggle between the people, who campaigned for him, and the senators,
who resisted him for some time, but eventually the law was repealed and
he was made consul.
Manius Manilius stormed several
cities in the neighborhood of Carthage.
the false Philip had massacred praetor Publius Juventius with his army
in Macedonia, he was defeated and captured by Quintus Caecilius, and
was subdued again.