|Ex libro LVI
in Hispania Ulteriore feliciter adversus Gallaecos pugnavit. Dissimili
eventu M. Aemilius Lepidus procos. adversus Vaccaeos rem gessit,
similem Numantinae passus est. Ad
exsolvendum foederis Numantini religione populum Mancinus, cum huius
auctor fuisset, deditus Numantinis non est receptus.
conditum est. Censa
sunt civium capita CCCXVII milia DCCCCXXXIII.
cos. Vardeos in Illyrico subegit.
in Thracia cum Scordiscis prospere pugnavit.
vitio ducum non sine pudore publico duraret, delatus est ultro Scipioni
Africano a senatu populoque R. consulatus; quem cum illi capere ob
quae vetabat quemquam iterum consulem fieri, non liceret, sicut priori
consulatu legibus solutus est.
in Sicilia ortum cum opprimi a praetoribus non potuisset, C. Fulvio
mandatum est. Huius belli initium
fuit Eunus servus, natione Syrus, qui contracta agrestium servorum manu
et solutis ergastulis iusti exercitus numerum implevit. Cleon
quoque alter servus ad LXX milia servorum contraxit, et iunctis copiis
adversus exercitum Romanum bellum saepe gesserunt.
|From book 56
Decimus Junius Brutus successfully fought against the Gallaecians.Proconsul
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus obtained different results against the
against whom he suffered a defeat equal to that at Numantia. To
release the nation from the ties of the treaty with Numantia, its
Mancinus was handed over to the Numantines, but they did not
performed the lustrum
citizens were registered.
Fulvius Flaccus subdued the Vardaeans in Illyricum.
In Thrace, praetor
Marcus Cosconius successfully fought against the Scordiscians.
of the mistakes of the commanders, and to the shame of the state, the
war dragged on, so the Senate
and people of Rome offered the consulship to Scipio Africanus
and because he could not accept this because of the law, which forbade
second consulships, the rulers were changes, just as it had happened
his previous consulate.
War in Sicily
could not be suppressed by the praetors, consul Gaius Fulvius was
This war was started by a Syrian slave named Eunus,
who gathered rural slaves, opened the workhouses, and expanded his band
to the size of an army. Another
slave, Cleon, gathered seventy thousand slaves, and the Roman army was
frequently defeated when the slave armies had united.
|Ex libro LVII
Numantiam obsedit et corruptum licentia luxuriaque exercitum ad
militiae disciplinam revocavit. Omnia
deliciarum instrumenta recidit, duo milia scortorum a castris eiecit,
cotidie in opere habuit et XXX dierum frumentum ad septenos vallos
propter onus incedenti dicebat: "cum gladio te vallare scieris, vallum
ferre desinito"; alii scutum parum habiliter ferenti, "amplius eum
iusto ferre, neque id se reprehendere, quando melius scuto quam gladio
uteretur ". Quem
militem extra ordinem deprehendit, si Romanus esset, vitibus, si
virgis cecidit. Iumenta
omnia, ne exonerarent militem, vendidit. Saepe
adversus eruptiones hostium feliciter pugnavit. Vaccaei
obsessi liberis coniugibusque trucidatis ipsi se interemerunt.
munera missa sibi ab Antiocho, rege Syriae, cum celare aliis
regum munera mos esset, pro tribunali accepturum se esse dixit omniaque
ea quaestorem referre in publicas tabulas iussit; ex his se viris
dona esse daturum. Cum
undique Numantiam obsidione clusisset et obsessos fame videret urgeri,
hostes qui pabulatum exierant, vetuit occidi, quia diceret velocius eos
absumpturos frumenti quod haberent, si plures fuissent.
|From book 57
Africanus [Aemilianus] besieged Numantia and restored the strictest
in an army that was corrupted by license and luxury. He
forbade all tools of pleasure, expelled two thousand prostitutes from
camp, made the soldiers work every day, and ordered them to carry
days of food and seven stakes. To
a man who carried it with difficulty, he said: "when you know how to
a wall from a sword, you can stop carrying the wall"; and to one who
difficulty with his shield, he said "although you are carrying a shield
that is larger than prescribed, I don't blame you, because you know
how to manage a shield than to manage a sword". When
a soldier was seen out of ranks, he had him beaten with vines when he
a Roman, or with rods if he was a foreigner. He
sold all animals, so that they might not relieve the soldiers from
loads. He frequently
fought successfully against enemy sallies. When
the Vaccaeans were besieged, they massacred their children and wives
were sent to Scipio by king Antiochus
[VII] of Syria,
and - although it was the habit of other commanders to hide royal
ordered to accept the gifts in front of the tribunal, and told the quaestors
to enter the presents in the public accounts; from this, he would give
presents to brave men. When
he had locked up Numantia from all sides and noticed that the besieged
suffered from hunger, he ordered that those enemies who went out to
for food should not be killed, because they would sooner exhaust their
supplies if there were more of them.
|Ex libro LVIII
Gracchus trib. pleb. cum legem agrariam ferret adversus voluntatem
et equestris ordinis: nequis ex publico agro plus quam mille iugera
in eum furorem exarsit ut M. Octavio collegae causam diversae partis
potestatem lege lata abrogaret, seque et C. Gracchum fratrem et Appium
Claudium socerum triumviros ad dividendum agrum crearet. Promulgavit
et aliam legem agrariam, qua sibi latius agrum patefaceret, ut idem
iudicarent, qua publicus ager, qua privatus esset. Deinde
cum minus agri esset quam quod dividi posset sine offensa etiam plebis,
quoniam eos ad cupiditatem amplum modum sperandi incitaverat, legem se
promulgaturum ostendit, ut his qui Sempronia lege agrum accipere
pecunia, quae regis Attali fuisset, divideretur. (Heredem
autem populum Romanum reliquerat Attalus, rex Pergami, Eumenis filius.)
commotus graviter senatus, ante omnis T. Annius consularis. Qui
cum in senatu in Gracchum perorasset, raptus ab eo ad populum
plebi, rursus in eum pro rostris contionatus est.
pleb. creari vellet Gracchus, auctore P. Cornelio Nasica in Capitolio
optimatibus occisus est, ictus primum fragmentis subselli, et inter
qui in eadem seditione occisi erant insepultus in flumen proiectus.
Sicilia vario eventu adversus fugitivos gestas continet.
|From book 58
of the Senate and the equestrian order, the tribune
of the plebs
Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus carried a land bill: no one was to own
than one thousand iugera of public land. In a rage,
by a special enactment his colleague Marcus Octavius because he had
the opposing point of view; and he had himself, his brother Gaius
and his father-in-law Appius Claudius elected as members of a triumviral
board to divide land. He
carried another land bill (aimed at getting more land) that this board
was to judge which land was owned by the state and which by private
there turned out to be less land than he could divide without incurring
the wrath of the plebeians -Gracchus had made them so greedy that they
hoped for a large amount- he announced that he would promote a law to
the money that had been bequested by king Attalus
[III] among those who would, according to his first law, have been
of Pergamon, the son of Eumenes
[II], had made the Roman people his heir.)
former consul Titus Annius, was very disturbed by these actions.When
Annius had delivered a speech against Gracchus in the Senate, he was
by Gracchus and accused before the plebeians, and Annius now made a
speech against him.
to be reelected as tribune, he was killed on the Capitol by the optimates,
led by Publius Cornelius Nasica. Gracchus was first hit by a piece of a
chair, and with those who perished in this fight, he was thrown in the
river, without funeral.
It [book 68]
contains an account of actions with various outcomes against the
|Ex libro LIX
ipsi se per vicem traicientes trucidaverunt, captam urbem Scipio
delevit et de ea triumphavit XIIII anno post Carthaginem deletam.
in Sicilia cum fugitivis debellavit.
regis filius, Asiam occupavit, cum testamento Attali regis legata
R. libera esse deberet. Adversus
eum P. Licinius Crassus cos., cum idem pontifex max. esset (quod
antea factum erat), extra Italiam profectus proelio victus et occisus
Perperna cos. victum Aristonicum in deditionem accepit.
Metellus, tunc primum uterque ex plebe facti censores, lustrum
sunt civium capita CCCXVIII milia DCCCXXIII praeter pupillos, pupillas
et viduas. Q.
Metellus censor censuit ut cogerentur omnes ducere uxores liberorum
oratio eius, quam Augustus Caesar, cum de maritandis ordinibus ageret,
velut in haec tempora scriptam in senatu recitavit.)
C. Atinius Labeo trib. pleb. Q.
Metellum censorem, a quo in senatu legendo praeteritus erat, de saxo
iussit; quod ne fieret, ceteri tribuni plebis auxilio tuerunt.
Cum Carbo trib. plebi rogationem
tulisset, ut eumdem tribunum pleb., quotiens vellet, creare liceret,
eius P. Africanus gravissima oratione dissuasit; in qua dixit Ti.
iure caesum videri. C. Gracchus
contra suasit rogationem, sed Scipio tenuit.
Bella inter Antiochum, Syriae, et
Phraaten, Parthorum regem, gesta nec magis quietae res Aegypti
(Euergetes cognominatus) ob nimiam crudelitatem suis
a populo regia clam Cypron profugit, et cum sorori eius Cleopatrae,
filia eius virgine per vim compressa atque in matrimonium ducta
regnum a populo datum esset, infensus filium quem ex illa habebat in
occidit caputque eius et manus et pedes matri misit.
Seditiones a triumviris Fulvio Flacco
et C. Graccho et C. Papirio Carbone agro dividendo creatis
P. Scipio Africanus adversaretur fortisque ac validus pridie domum se
mortuus in cubiculo inventus est. Suspecta
fuit, tamquam ei venenum dedisset, Sempronia uxor hinc maxime quod
esset Gracchorum cum quibus simultas Africano fuerat. De
morte tamen eius nulla quaestio acta. Defuncto
eo acrius seditiones triumvirales exarserunt.
C. Sempronius cos. adversus Iapydas
primo male rem gessit, mox victoria cladem acceptam emendavit virtute
Iuni Bruti (eius qui Lusitaniam subegerat).
|From book 59
the Numantines ran one another through and massacred themselves, and
Africanus [Aemilianus] sacked the captured city, and celebrated a
in the fourteenth year after the destruction of Carthage.
Publius Rupilius defeated the Sicilian runaway slaves.
the son of king Eumenes [in fact Attalus
II Philadelphus], occupied Asia, which had been
the Roman people and was supposed to be free. 
Publius Licinius Crassus, who was at the same time pontifex
maximus (something that had never happened before), set out
him from Italy, but was defeated and killed in battle. 
Marcus Perperna, however, accepted the surrender of the defeated
first two plebeian censors, Quintus Pompeius and Quintius Metellus,
the lustrum ceremony. 318,823
citizens were registered, wards and widows not included. Censor
Quintus Metellus suggested that everyone ought to be forced to marry to
create more children. (His
speech still exists, and was quoted in the Senate by the emperor Augustus
as if it had recently been written, when he proposed a marriage law.)
Tribune Gaius Atinius Labeo ordered
censor Quintus Metellus to be thrown from the [Tarpeian] rock, because
he had not included him when he had revised the list of senators; the
tribunes assisted Metellus to prevent this.
When tribune [Gaius Papirius] Carbo
proposed that someone could be tribune as often as he wished, Publius
Scipio] Africanus [Aemilianus] argued against this law in a dignified
in which he said that Tiberius Gracchus appeared to be lawfully
Gaius Gracchus spoke for the proposal, Scipio won.
An account is given of the war between
king Antiochus [VII] of Syria and Phraates [II] of the Parthians,
and of the no less turbulent situation in Egypt. Ptolemy
(surnamed Euergetes) was hated by his people
because he was too
cruel, and secretly fled to Cyprus when the people had set his palace
and when the kingdom was given by the people to his sister Cleopatra
(whom he had divorced after he had raped and married her virgin
he killed, in a fit of anger, the son she had given him, and sent the
head, hands, and feet to his mother.
Riots were exited by the board of
three for the division of land, Fulvius Flaccus, Gaius Gracchus, and
Papirius Carbo. Although he had
returned home in good health, Publius [Cornelius] Scipio Africanus
was found dead in his bed room after he had appeared in opposition on
former day. His wife was suspected
of poisoning him, chiefly because Sempronia was the sister of the
whom Africanus had opposing. Yet
there was no prosecution of the case. After
his death, the triumviral riots were exacerbated.
Consul Gaius Sempronius at first
fought unsuccessfully against the Iapydians, but the defeat was
by a victory won through the qualities of Decimus Junius Brutus (the
who had subdued Lusitania).
|Ex libro LX
bellantes Sardos subegit.
primus transalpinos Liguras domuit bello, missus in auxilium
adversus Salluvios Gallos, qui fines Massiliensium populabantur.
Fregellanos, qui defecerant, in deditionem accepit, Fregellas diruit.
Africa ab ingenti lucustarum multitudine et deinde necatarum strage
conditum est. Censa
sunt civium capita CCCXCIIII milia DCCXXXVI.
frater, trib. plebis, eloquentior quam frater, perniciosas aliquot
tulit, inter quas frumentariam, ut senis et triente frumentum plebi
alteram legem agrariam quam et frater eius tulerat; tertiam, qua
ordinem tunc cum senatu consentientem corrumperet, ut sescenti ex
in curiam sublegerentur et, quia illis temporibus CCC tantum senatores
erant, DC equites CCC senatoribus admiscerentur, id est ut equester
bis tantum virium in senatu haberet. Et
continuato in alterum annum tribunatu legibus agrariis latis effecit ut
complures coloniae in Italia deducerentur et una in solo dirutae
quo ipse triumvir creatus coloniam deduxit.
Q. Metello cos. adversus Baleares gestas continet, quos Graeci Gymnesios
appellant, quia aestatem nudi exigunt. Baleares
a teli missu appellati aut a Balio, Herculis comite ibi relicto, cum
ad Geryonem navigaret.
Motus quoque Syriae referuntur,
in quibus Cleopatra Demetrium virum suum et Seleucum filium indignata
occiso patre eius a se iniussu suo diadema sumpsisset, interemit.
|From book 60
Lucius Aurelius subdued rebellious Sardinians.
Fulvius Flaccus, sent out to help the Massiliots against Gallic
living on the Massilian frontier, was the first to subdue Ligurians
Opimius accepted the surrender of the rebellious Fregellans and sacked
There is a
to a plague of locusts in Africa and the large numbers of killed
censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 394,736
citizens were registered.
Gaius Gracchus, brother of Tiberius and a better orator, carried
dangerous laws, among which was one on the supply of grain, which was
be sold for six and one-third asses to the plebs; a land bill like that
of his brother; and a third law, aimed at corrupting the equestrian
(which at that time was collaborating with the Senate), that six
should be added to the Senate. Because back then, there were only three
hundred senators, and the six hundred knights and three hundred
would be mixed, the equestrian order would have a majority of two to
in the Senate. After
Gracchus had continued to a second tribuneship, he passed new land
which resulted in the founding of several colonies in Italy, and one in
Carthage, of which he himself was one of the three founders.
It [book 60]
contains an account of the war of Quintus [Caecilius] Metellus against
those Balearans whom the Greeks call Gymnesios,
because they are
naked in the summer. The Balearans
received their name from their missiles, or else from Balius, a
who was left behind when he sailed to Geryon.
A description is given of the situation
in Syria, in which Cleopatra
[Thea] first killed her husband Demetrius
[II Nicator] and then her son Seleucus
[V], because she hated him. After she had killed his father, he had
without her permission.