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Livy: Periochae 61-65


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.
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Ex libro LXI

C. Sextius procos. victa Salluviorum gente coloniam Aquas Sextias condidit, ob aquarum copiam e caldis frigidisque fontibus atque a nomine suo ita appellatas.

Cn. Domitius procos. adversus Allobrogas ad oppidum Vindalium feliciter pugnavit. Quibus bellum inferendi causa fuit quod Toutomotulum, Salluviorum regem, fugientem recepissent et omni ope iuvissent, quodque Aeduorum agros, sociorum populi R., vastassent. 

C. Gracchus seditioso tribunatu acto cum Aventinum quoque armata multitudine occupasset, a L. Opimio cos. ex S.C. vocato ad arma populo pulsus et occisus est, et cum eo Fulvius Flaccus consularis, socius eiusdem furoris.

Q. Fabius Maximus cos., Pauli nepos, adversus Allobrogas et Bituitum, Arvernorum regem, feliciter pugnavit. Ex Bituiti exercitu occisa milia CXX; ipse cum ad satisfaciendum senatui Romam profectus esset, Albam custodiendus datus est, quia contra pacem videbatur, ut in Galliam remitteretur. Decretum quoque est, ut Congonnetiacus, filius eius, conprehensus Romam mitteretur. Allobroges in deditionem recepti. 

L. Opimius accusatus apud populum a. Q. Decio trib. pl., quod indemnatos cives in carcerem coniecisset, absolutus est. 

From book 61

After he had defeated the tribe of the Salluvians, proconsul Gaius Sextius founded the colony of Aquae Sextiae, which was called like this because there is much water from warm and cold springs.

Proconsul Gnaeus Domitius successfully fought against the Allobroges near the town of Vindalium. The reason for starting this war was that the Allobroges had offered refuge to king Toutomotulus of the Salluvians, and had supported him with all possible means when he devastated the land of the Aedui, an ally of the Roman people.

[121 BCE] After a turbulent tribuneship, Gaius Gracchus occupied the Aventine with an armed mob, but, after the Senate had decided to summon the people to arms, he was routed and killed by consul Lucius Opimius. Former consul Fulvius Flaccus, Gracchus' ally in his madness, died with him.

Consul Quintus Fabius Maximus, grandson of Paulus, successfully fought against the Allobroges and Bituitus, the king of the Arvernians. From the army of Bituitus, 120,000 men were killed; after the king himself had gone to Rome to make peace with the Senate, he was kept in custody at Alba, because his return to Gaul seemed not to be in the interest of tranquillity. It was also decided to arrest his son Congonnetiacus and send him to Rome. The surrender of the Allobroges was accepted.

[120] Lucius Opimius, accused before the people by Quintus Decius, tribune of the plebs, on the charge that he had sent citizens to jail without trial, was acquitted.

Ex libro LXII

Q. Marcius cos. Stynos, gentem Alpinam, expugnavit.

Micipsa, Numidiae rex, mortuus regnum tribus filiis reliquit: Atherbali, Hiempsali, Iugurthae (fratris filio, quem adoptaverat).

L. Caecilius Metellus Dalmatas subegit.

Iugurtha Hiempsalem fratrem petiit bello. Qui victus occiditur; Atherbalem regno expulit; is a senatu restitutus est.

L. Caecilius Metellus Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus censores duos et XXX senatu moverunt.

Praeterea motus Syriae regumque continet.

From book 62

[118] Consul Quintus Marcius defeated the Stynians, a nation living in the Alps.

When he died, king Micipsa of Numidia left his kingdom to his three sons Adherbal, Hiempsal, and Jugurtha (the adopted son of his brother).

[117] Lucius Caecilius Metellus subdued the Dalmatians.

Jugurtha launched an armed attack on his brother Hiempsal, who was defeated and killed. Adherbal was expelled from the kingdom, but restored by the Senate.

Lucius Caecilius Metellus and Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, acting as censors, removed thirty-two members from the Senate.

It [book 62] also contains an account of disturbances in Syria and a quarrel between its kings.

Ex libro LXIII

C. Porcius cos. in Thracia male adversus Scordiscos pugnavit.

Lustrum a censoribus conditum est. Censa sunt civium capita CCCXCIIII milia CCCXXXVI.

Aemilia, Licinia, Marcia, virgines Vestales, incesti damnatae sunt, idque incestum quem ad modum et commissum et deprehensum et vindicatum sit refertur.

Cimbri, gens vaga populabundi in Illyricum venerunt. Ab his Papirius Carbo cos. cum exercitu fusus est.

Livius Drusus cos. adversus Scordiscos, gentem a Gallis oriundam, in Thracia feliciter pugnavit.

From book 63

[114] In Thrace, consul Gaius Porcius unsuccessfully fought against the Scordiscians.

The censors performed the lustrum ceremony. 394,336 citizens were registered.

The Vestal virgins Aemilia, Licinia, and Marcia were condemned for unchastity. There is a description of how this unchastity was committed, discovered, and punished.

[113] In pursuit of plunder, the nomadic tribe of the Cimbrians came to Illyricum. Consul Papirius Carbo and his army were defeated by them.

[112] In Thrace, consul Livius Drusus successfully fought against the Scordiscians, a nation of Gallic descent.

Ex libro LXIV

Atherbal bello petitus ab Iugurtha et in oppido Cirtha obsessus contra denuntiationem senatus ab eo occisus est, et ob hoc bellum Iugurthae indictum, idque Calpurnius Bestia cos. gerere iussus pacem cum Iugurtha iniussu populi et senatus fecit.

Iugurtha fide publica evocatus ad indicandos auctores consiliorum suorum, quod multos pecunia in senatu corrupisse dicebatur, Romam venit et propter caedem admissam in regulum quemdam nomine Massivam, qui regnum eius populo R. invisi adfectabat, cum periclitaretur causam capitis dicere, clam profugit et cedens urbe fertur dixisse: "O urbem venalem et cito perituram, si emptorem invenerit."

A. Postumius legatus infeliciter proelio adversus Iugurtham gesto pacem quoque adiecit ignominiosam, quam non esse servandam senatus censuit.

From book 64

Adherbal, attacked by Jugurtha and besieged in the town of Cirtha was killed in violation of a senatorial decree. [111] Because of this, war was declared upon Jugurtha, and consul Calpurnius Bestia, who was sent out to conduct this war, concluded a treaty with Jugurtha, without being ordered to do so by the people or the Senate.

Under safe-conduct, Jugurtha was invited to Rome so that he might indicate the instigators of his plots (he was said to have corrupted many senators with bribes), and arrived. Because he killed some sort of king who was called Massiva and tried to claim the kingdom of the hated Jugurtha from the Roman people, Jugurtha risked standing trial for his life, and secretly fled. It is said that when he left the city, he commented: "What a corrupt city! It will perish as soon as it finds someone to buy it."

[110] Deputy Aulus Postumius was defeated in battle by Jugurtha and added to this an dishonorable peace treaty, which the Senate preferred not to ratify.

Ex libro LXV

Q. Caecilius Metellus cos. duobus proeliis Iugurtham fudit totamque Numidiam vastavit.

M. Iunius Silanus cos. adversus Cimbros infeliciter pugnavit. Legatis Cimbrorum sedem et agros in quibus consisterent postulantibus senatus negavit.

M. Minucius procos. adversus Thracas prospere pugnavit.

L. Cassius cos. a Tigurinis Gallis, pago Helvetiorum, qui a civitate secesserant, in finibus Nitiobrogum cum exercitu caesus est. Milites, qui ex ea caede superaverant, obsidibus datis et dimidia rerum omnium parte, ut incolumes dimitterentur, cum hostibus pacti sunt.

From book 65

[109] Consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Jugurtha in two battles and devastated all Numidia.

[108] Consul Marcus Junius Silanus unsuccessfully fought against the Cimbrians. The Senate ignored the envoys of the Cimbrians who demanded land and a place to settle. 

Proconsul Marcus Minucius successfully fought against the Thracians.

[107] In the country of the Nitiobriges, consul Lucius Cassius [Longinus] was massacred with his army by the Gallic Tigurini, a Helvetian tribe that had left its own country. After the soldiers who had survived the disaster had given hostages and half of their possessions, they arranged to be released unharmed.

to the Periochae of books 66-70
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