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Livy: Periochae 66-70


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.
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Ex libro LXVI

Iugurtha pulsus a C. Mario Numidia cum auxilio Bocchi, Maurorum regis, adiutus esset, caesis proelio Bocchi quoque copiis, nolente Boccho bellum infeliciter susceptum diutius sustinere vinctus ab eo et Mario traditus est; in qua re praecipua opera L. Corneli Sullae, quaestoris C. Mari, fuit.

From book 66

[106 BCE] When Jugurtha, expelled from Numidia by Gaius Marius, received help of Bocchus, king of the Maurians, Bocchus' troops were slaughtered in battle and Bocchus no longer wanted to continue the war he had so unfortunately undertaken. He threw Jugurtha in chains and handed him over to Marius; in this affair, the main actor was Lucius Cornelius Sulla, the quaestor of Gaius Marius.

Ex libro LXVII

M. Aurelius Scaurus, legatus consulis, a Cimbris fuso exercitu captus est, et cum in consilium ab his advocatus deterreret eos ne Alpes transirent Italiam petituri, eo quod diceret Romanos vinci non posse, a Boiorige, feroci iuvene, occisus est. Ab isdem hostibus Cn. Manlius cos. et Q. Servilius Caepio procos. victi proelio castris quoque binis exuti sunt, militum milia LXXX occisa, calonum et lixarum XL (secundum Antiatem) apud Arausionem. Caepionis, cuius temeritate clades accepta erat, damnati bona publicata sunt, primi post regem Tarquinium imperiumque ei abrogatum.

In triumpho C. Mari ductus ante currum eius Iugurtha cum duobus filiis et in carcere necatus est. Marius triumphali veste in senatum venit, quod nemo ante eum fecerat, eique propter metum Cimbrici belli continuatus per complures annos est consulatus. Secundo et tertio absens consul creatus quartum consulatum dissimulanter captans consecutus est.

Cn. Domitius pont. max. populi suffragio creatus est.

Cimbri vastatis omnibus quae inter Rhodanum et Pyrenaeum sunt, per saltum in Hispaniam transgressi ibique multa loca populati a Celtiberis fugati sunt, reversique in Galliam in Veliocassis se Teutonis coniunxerunt.

From book 67

[105] After the defeat of his army, Marcus Aurelius Scaurus, a deputy of the consul, was captured by the Cimbrians and called to their council, where he deterred them from crossing the Alps and going to Italy, saying that the Romans were unconquerable. He was killed by a savage young man, Boiorix. Defeated by the same enemies, consul Gnaeus Manlius and proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio were stripped of both their camps; according to Valerius Antias, 80,000 soldiers and 40,000 servants and camp followers were killed near Arausio. Caepio, who had caused the defeat by his rashness, was convicted; his possessions were confiscated (for the first time since king Tarquinius) and his powers abrogated.

[104] During the triumph of Gaius Marius, Jugurtha walked in front of the chariot with his two sons, and was killed in the jail. Marius entered the Senate in triumphal dress, something no one had ever done before, and his consulship was prolonged out of fear of the Cimbrian war. He was away when he was elected for consul for the second and third time, and obtained a fourth consulship by pretending not to be aiming for it.

The people chose Gnaeus Domitius as pontifex maximus.

Having devastated everything between Rhône and Pyrenees, the Cimbrians moved through a mountain pass into Hispania, where they were -after having devastated many districts- routed by the Celtiberians. They returned to Gaul and joined the Teutons in the land of the Veliocassians.

Ex libro LXVIII

M. Antonius praetor in Ciliciam maritimos praedones persecutus est.

C. Marius cos. summa vi oppugnata a Teutonis et Ambronibus castra defendit. Duobus deinde proeliis circa Aquas Sextias eosdem hostes delevit, in quibus caesa traduntur hostium CC milia, capta XC milia.

Marius absens quinto cos. creatus est.Triumphum oblatum, donec et Cimbros vinceret, distulit.

Cimbri cum repulso ab Alpibus fugatoque Q. Catulo procos., qui fauces Alpium obsidebat (ad flumen Athesim cohortem quae castellum editum insederat, reliquerat, quae tamen virtute sua explicata fugientem procos. exercitumque consecuta est), in Italiam traiecissent, iunctis eiusdem Catuli et C. Mari exercitibus, proelio victi sunt; in quo caesa traduntur hostium milia CXL, capta LX.

Marius totius civitatis consensu exceptus pro duobus triumphis qui offerebantur, uno contentus fuit. Primores civitatis, qui ei aliquamdiu ut novo homini ad tantos honores evecto inviderant, conservatam ab eo rem p. fatebantur.

Publicius Malleolus matre occisa primus in culleo insutus in mare praecipitatus est.

Ancilia cum strepitu mota esse, antequam Cimbricum bellum consummaretur, refertur.

Bella praeterea inter Syriae reges gesta continet.

From book 68

Praetor Marcus Antonius pursued the pirates to Cilicia.

[102] Consul Gaius Marius defended his camp against a violent attack by the Teutons and Ambronians. After this, he defeated these enemies in two battles near Aquae Sextiae, in which -they say- 200,000 enemies were killed and 90,000 captured.

[101] Although away from home, Marius was elected consul for the fifth time. He postponed the triumph offered to him until he had also defeated the Cimbrians.

The Cimbrians, who had driven back and put to flight proconsul Quintus Catulus, who had wanted to block the passes in the Alps (near the river Adige he left a cohort that occupied a mountain castle; but by its own valour it broke away and followed the fleeing proconsul and his army), invaded Italy, [100] but were defeated in battle by the united forces of this Catulus and Gaius Marius; it is said that 160,000 enemies were killed and 60,000 captured.

Although Marius, welcomed by the applause of the entire state, had been offered two triumphs, he was content with one. The first men in the state, who had until then envied the "new man" who had reached so many important posts, now admitted that the state had been rescued by him.

Publicius Malleolus, who had killed his mother, was the first to be sewn into a sack and thrown into the sea.

It is said that the sacred shields moved and rattled before the Cimbrian war was over.

It [book 68] also contains an account of a war between the Syrian kings [Antiochus VIII and Antiochus IX].

Ex libro LXIX

L. Apuleius Saturninus, adiuvante C. Mario et per milites occiso A. Nunnio competitore tribunus plebis per vim creatus, non minus violenter tribunatum, quam petierat, gessit et cum legem agrariam per vim tulisset, Metello Numidico, quod in eam non iuraverat, diem dixit.Qui cum a bonis civibus defenderetur, ne causa certaminum esset, in exilium voluntarium, Rhodum, profectus est, ibique audiendo et legendo magnos viros avocabatur.

Profecto C. Marius, seditionis auctor, qui sextum consulatum pecunia per tribus sparsa emerat, aqua et igni interdixit.

Idem Apuleius Saturninus trib. pleb. C. Memmium, candidatum consulatus, quoniam adversarium eum actionibus suis timebat, occidit. Quibus rebus concitato senatu, in cuius causam et C. Marius (homo varii mutabilis ingenii consiliique semper secundum fortunam) transierat, oppressus armis cum Glaucia praetore et aliis eiusdem furoris sociis bello quodam interfectus est.

Q. Caecilius Metellus ab exilio ingenti totius civitatis favore reductus est.

M'. Aquilius procos. in Sicilia bellum servile excitatum confecit.

From book 69

Using violence, Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, who had the support of Gaius Marius, and whose rival Aulus Nunnius had been killed by soldiers, was made tribune of the plebs, and occupied his tribuneship no less violently than he had tried to obtain it. When he had, using violence, passed a land bill, he accused Metellus Numidicus, who had not sworn to uphold this law. He was defended by the better citizens, but went into voluntary exile at Rhodes because he refused to be the cause of civil struggle. Here, he found distraction in reading and listening to great orators.

When he had left, Gaius Marius, who was responsible for the riot and had bought a sixth consulship by distributing money to the voting districts, confirmed Metellus' exile.

The same tribune Appuleius Saturninus assassinated Gaius Memmius, a candidate for the consulship whom he feared to be against him. Shocked by these crimes, the Senate, to whose side Gaius Marius (a man of constantly changing ideas and plans, always following fortune) had gone over, put Saturninus down, together with the praetor Glaucia and other allies who accompanied him in his madness, and had him killed in something like a battle.

With the approval of the entire community, Quintus Caecilius Metellus was recalled from exile.

Proconsul Manius Aquilius put an end to the war against the slaves that had originated in Sicily.

Ex libro LXX

Cum M'. Aquilius de pecuniis repetundis causam diceret, ipse iudices rogare noluit; M. Antonius, qui pro eo perorabat, tunicam a pectore eius discidit, ut honestas cicatrices ostenderet. Indubitate absolutus est. (Cicero eius rei solus auctor.)

T. Didius procos. adversus Celtiberos feliciter pugnavit.

Ptolemaeus, Cyrenarum rex, cui cognomen Apionis fuit, mortuus heredem populum R. reliquit et eius regni civitates senatus liberas esse iussit.

Ariobarzanes in regnum Cappadociae a L. Cornelio Sulla reductus est. Parthorum legati a rege Arsace missi venerunt ad Sullam ut amicitiam populi R. peterent.

P. Rutilius, vir summae innocentiae, quoniam legatus C. Muci procos. a publicanorum iniuriis Asiam defenderat, invisus equestri ordini penes quem iudicia erant, repetundarum damnatus in exilium missus est.

C. Sentius praetor adversus Thracas infeliciter pugnavit.

Senatus, cum impotentiam equestris ordinis in iudiciis exercendis ferre nollet, omni vi eniti coepit ut ad se iudicia transferret, sustinente causam eius M. Livio Druso trib. pleb., qui ut vires sibi adquireret, perniciosa spe largitionum plebem concitavit.

Praeterea motus Syriae regnumque continet.

From book 70

When Manius Aquilius was accused of extortion, he refused to appeal to the jury, and Marcus Antonius, who had spoken for him, tore the tunic from his chest to show his honorable scars. Without further ado, he was acquitted. (Cicero is the only source for this case.)

[97] Proconsul Titus Didius successfully fought against the Celtiberians.

[96] After his death, king Ptolemy of Cyrene, surnamed Apion, made the Roman people his inheritor and the Senate decreed that all the towns in his kingdom were to be free.

[95] Ariobarzanes was brought back to the kingdom of Cappadocia by Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Envoys of the Parthians, sent by the Arsacid king, came to Sulla to ask for the friendship of the Roman people.

[92] Because as deputy of governor Gaius Mucius he had defended Asia against the injustice of the publicans, Publius Rutilius, a man of supreme innocence, was hated by the equestrian order, which controlled the law courts and sent him into exile because of extortion.

Praetor Gaius Sentius unsuccessfully fought against the Thracians.

[91] The Senate, which refused to accept the control of the law courts by the equestrian order, started to try to transfer control to the Senate itself. It was supported by tribune Marcus Livius Drusus, who, to obtain more power, stirred up the people with the dangerous hope of a largesse.

It [book 70] also contains an account of the troubles in the Syrian kingdom.

to the Periochae of books 71-75
 
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