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Livy: Periochae 106-110



Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.
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Ex libro CVI

Iulia, Caesaris filia, Pompei uxor, decessit, honosque ei a populo habitus est, ut in campo Martio sepeliretur.

Gallorum aliquot populi Ambiorige duce, Eburonum rege, defecerunt. A quibus Cotta et Titurius, legati Caesaris, circumventi insidiis cum exercitu cui praeerant caesi sunt. Et cum aliarum quoque legionum castra oppugnata magno labore defensa essent, inter quae eius cui in Treveris praeerat Q. Cicero, ab ipso Caesare hostes proelio fusi sunt.

M. Crassus bellum Parthis inlaturus Euphraten flumen transiit, victusque proelio in quo et filius eius cecidit, cum reliquias exercitus in collem recepisset, evocatus in conloquium ab hostibus velut de pace acturis, quorum dux erat Surenas, conprehensusque et, nequid vivus pateretur repugnans, interfectus est.

From book 106

[54 BCE] Julia, Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife [text], died, and the people allowed her the honor of a burial on the field of Mars.

Several Gallic tribes, commanded by king Ambiorix of the Eburones, revoltedCotta and Titurius, Caesar's deputies, were besieged with the army they commanded, and killed. And when the camps of the other legions were also besieged and defended with difficulty, the camp of Quintus [Tullius] Cicero among the Treverians, was after a battle liberated by Caesar.

[53] Marcus Crassus crossed the river Euphrates, carried the war to the Parthian empire, and was defeated in a battle [near Carrhae] in which his son also fell. With the remains of his army, he occupied a hill, and was summoned to a conference by the enemy leader, Surena, as if to speak about a truce. However, he was captured and killed in a struggle to avoid suffering the indignity of remaining alive.

Ex libro CVII

C. Caesar Treveris in Gallia victis iterum in Germaniam transiit, nulloque ibi hoste invento reversus in Galliam. Eburonas et alias civitates, quae conspiraverant, vicit et Ambiorigem in fuga persecutus est.

P. Clodi a T. Annio Milone candidato consulatus Appia via ad Bovillas occisi corpus plebs in curia cremavit.

Cum seditiones inter candidatos consulatus, Hypsaeum, Scipionem, Milonem essent, qui armis ac vi contendebant, ad comprimendas eas Cn. Pompeio legato [lacuna] et a senatu cos. tertio factus est absens et solus, quod nulli alii umquam [accidit].

Quaestione decreta de morte P. Clodi Milo iudicio damnatus in exilium actus est.

Lex lata est ut ratio absentis Caesaris in petitione consulatus haberetur, invito et contradicente M. Catone.

Praeterea res gestas a C. Caesare adversus Gallos qui prope universi Vercingentorige Arverno duce defecerunt, et laboriosas obsidiones urbium continet, inter quas Avarici Biturigum et Gergoviae Arvernorum.

From book 107

Gaius Caesar overcame the Treverians in Gaul, and crossed into Germania for the second time, but when he did not meet an enemy, he returned to Gaul. He subdued the Eburones and other rebellious tribes and pursued Ambiorix when he tried to make his escape.

[52] Publius Clodius was killed on the Via Appia, near Bovillae, by Titus Annius Milo, a candidate for the consulship. Clodius was cremated by the plebs in the building of the Senate.

There were violent and armed riots among the candidates for the consulship, Hypsaeus, Scipio, and Milo. To suppress these, Gnaeus Pompey was deputized [lacuna] and, although he was absent, elected consul for the third time, without colleague. This had never happened before.

After an investigation of the death of Publius Clodius had been decreed, Milo was condemned by the court and sent into exile.

A law was introduced that Caesar could be candidate for the consulship while he was absent; this was not to Marcus [Porcius] Cato's liking, and he spoke against it.

It [book 107] also contains an account of Caesar's actions against the Gauls, who had revolted almost without exception under Vercingetorix, leader of the Arvernians, and contains accounts of difficult sieges of several towns, such as Avaricum of the Bituriges and Gergovia of the Arvernians.

Ex libro CVIII

C. Caesar Gallos ad Alesiam vicit omnesque Galliae civitates quae in armis fuerant, in deditionem accepit.

C. Cassius, quaestor M. Crassi, Parthos, qui in Syriam transcenderant, cecidit.

In petitione consulatus M. Cato repulsam tulit, creatis coss. Ser. Sulpicio M. Marcello.

C. Caesar Bellovacos cum aliis Gallorum populis domuit.

Praeterea contentiones inter consules de successore C. Caesari mittendo, agente in senatu Marcello cos. ut Caesar ad petitionem consulatus veniret, cum is lege lata in tempus consulatus provincias obtinere deberet, resque a M. Bibulo in Syria gestas continet.

From book 108

Gaius Caesar defeated all Gallic tribes that were in arms at Alesia, and accepted their surrender.

[51] Gaius Cassius, quaestor of Marcus Crassus, defeated the Parthians, who had invaded Syria.

Marcus [Porcius] Cato was defeated when he stood for the consulship. Instead, Servius Sulpicius and Marcus Marcellus were elected.

Gaius Caesar subdued the Bellovaces and other Gallic tribes.

[50] It [book 108] also contains an account of the conflict between the consuls about who they should send as successor of Gaius Caesar. Consul Marcellus proposed to the Senate that Caesar should return to run for consul, although a law had been passed that he was to rule his provinces until the time of his consulship had come. The book also contains an account of the war conducted by Marcus Bibulus in Syria.

Ex libro CIX
qui est civilis belli primus

Causae civilium armorum et initia referuntur contentionesque de successore C. Caesari mittendo, cum se dimissurum exercitus negaret nisi a Pompeio dimitterentur. Et C. Curionis tr. pl. primum adversus Caesarem, dein pro Caesare actiones continet.

Cum senatus consultum factum esset ut successor Caesari mitteretur, M. Antonio et Q. Cassio tr. pl., quoniam intercessionibus id senatus c. impediebant, urbe pulsis [lacuna] mandatumque a senatu coss. et Cn. Pompeio, ut viderent nequid res p. detrimenti caperet.

C. Caesar bello inimicos persecuturus cum exercitu in Italiam venit, Corfinium cum L. Domitio et P. Lentulo cepit eosque dimisit, Cn. Pompeium ceterosque partium eius Italia expulit.

From book 109
which is the first dealing with the civil war

The causes and beginning of the civil war are described, together with the conflict about sending out a successor to Gaius Caesar, who refused to disband his armies unless Pompey disbanded his. It [book 109] also contains an account of the actions of the tribune of the plebs Gaius Curio, who was first against Caesar, but later supported his case.

When the Senate had decided that Caesar was to be replaced, the tribunes Marc Antony and Quintus Cassius, who tried to obstruct the senatorial decision, were expelled from the city [lacuna] The consuls and Gnaeus Pompey received special powers from the Senate, to see to it that no harm befell the republic.

[49] Gaius Caesar entered Italy with an army to wage war against his enemies. He captured Corfinium together with Lucius Domitius and Publius Lentulus, set them free, and expelled Gnaeus Pompey and the other members of his faction from Italy.

Ex libro CX
qui est civilis belli secundus

C. Caesar Massiliam, quae portas cluserat, obsedit et relictis in obsidione urbis eius legatis C. Trebonio et D. Bruto profectus in Hispaniam L. Afranium et M. Petreium, legatus Cn. Pompei, cum VII legionibus ad Ilerdam in deditionem accepit omnesque incolumes dimisit, Varrone quoque, legato Pompei, cum exercitu in potestatem suam redacto. Gaditanis civitatem dedit. Massilienses duobus navalibus proeliis victi post longam obsidionem potestati Caesaris se permiserunt.

C. Antonius, legatus Caesaris, male adversus Pompeianos in Illyrico rebus gestis captus est. In quo bello Opitergini transpadani (Caesaris auxiliares) rate sua ab hostibus navibus clusa, potius quam in potestatem hostium venirent, inter se concurrentes occubuerunt.

C. Curio, legatus Caesaris in Africa, cum prospere adversus Varum, Pompeianarum partium ducem, pugnasset, a Iuba, rege Mauretaniae, cum exercitu caesus est.

C. Caesar in Graeciam traiecit.

From book 110
which is the second dealing with the civil war

Gaius Caesar laid siege to Marseilles, which had closed its gates, but left the siege of the city to his deputies Gaius Trebonius and Decimus Brutus and went to Hispania, where he accepted the surrender of Lucius Afranius and Marcus Petreius, deputies of Pompey, and seven legions at Ilerda. He let them all go unharmed. Even [Terentius] Varro, another deputy of Pompey, and his army were brought into Caesar's power. He gave the people of Gades the citizenship. The Massiliotes, which had been defeated in two naval battles, surrendered themselves to Caesar after a long siege.

Caesar's deputy Gaius Antonius fought unsuccessfully against the Pompeians in Illyria and was captured. In this war, several Opiterginians from across the Po (Caesar's auxiliary troops) killed each other rather than be captured when their raft was surrendered by enemy ships.

Gaius Curio, Caesar's deputy in Africa, fought successfully against Varus, the leader of the Pompeian faction, but was killed with his army by Juba, the king of Mauritania.

[48] Gaius Julius Caesar crossed to Greece.





to the Periochae of books 111-115




 
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