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Livy: Periochae 111-115


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.
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Ex libro CXI
qui est civilis belli tertius

M. Caelius Rufus praetor, cum seditiones in urbe concitaret novarum tabularum spe plebe sollicitata, abrogato magistratu pulsus urbe Miloni exuli, qui fugitivorum exercitum contraxerat, se coniunxit. Uterque, cum bellum molirentur, interfecti sunt.

Cleopatra, regina Aegypti, ab Ptolemaeo fratre regno pulsa est.

Propter Q. Cassi [pro]praetoris avaritiam crudelitatemque Cordubenses in Hispania cum duabus Varronianis legionibus a partibus Caesaris desciverunt.

Cn. Pompeius ad Dyrrachium obsessus a Caesare et, praesidiis eius cum magna clade diversae partis expugnatis, obsidione liberatus translato in Thessaliam bello apud Pharsaliam acie victus est. Cicero in castris remansit, vir nihil minus quam ad bella natus. Omnibusque adversarum partium, qui se potestati victoris permiserant, Caesar ignovit.

From book 111
which is the third dealing with the civil war

[48 BCE] Praetor Marcus Caelius Rufus, who had provoked riots in the city by inciting the plebs with the prospect of a debt cancellation, was expelled from office and from the city, and joined the exile Milo, who was building an army of runaway slaves. Both of them were killed when they tried to stir up war.

Queen Cleopatra of Egypt was exiled by her brother Ptolemy [XIII].

Because of the avarice and cruelty of propraetor Quintus Cassius, the inhabitants of Cordoba in Hispania, together with the two legions of [Terentius] Varro, abandoned the cause of Caesar.

Gnaeus Pompey was besieged at Dyrrhachium by Caesar and, after storming the latter's forts with great losses to the other side, freed himself from the siege and transferred the war to Thessaly, where his army was defeated at PharsalusCicero remained in Pompey's camp, because there was never a man less suited to war than he. Caesar pardoned all enemies who put themselves in the hands of the victor.

Ex libro CXII
qui est civilis belli quartus

Trepidantia victarum partium in diversas orbis terrarum partes et fuga refertur. Cn. Pompeius cum Aegyptum petisset, iussu Ptolemaei regis (pupilli sui), auctore Theodoto praeceptore, cuius magna apud regem auctoritas erat, et Pothino occisus est ab Achilla, cui id facinus erat delegatum, in navicula antequam in terram exiret. Cornelia uxor et Sex. Pompeius filius Cypron refugerunt.

Caesar post tertium diem insecutus, cum ei Theodotus caput Pompei et anulum obtulisset, infensus est et inlacrimavit. Sine periculo Alexandriam tumultuantem intravit.

Caesar dictator creatus Cleopatram in regnum Aegypti reduxit et inferentem bellum Ptolemaeum isdem auctoribus, quibus Pompeium interfecerat, cum magno suo discrimine evicit. Ptolemaeus dum fugit, in Nilo navicula subsedit.

Praeterea laboriosum M. Catonis in Africa per deserta cum legionibus iter et bellum a Cn. Domitio adversus Pharnacen parum prospere gestum continet.

From book 112
which is the fourth dealing with the civil war

It [book 112] tells about the panic and flight of the members of the defeated party to various parts of the world. When Gnaeus Pompey went to Egypt, he was, by order of king Ptolemy (Pompey's own pupil) but at the instigation of Pothinus and the king's influential teacher Theodotus, murdered in a small bark, before he could set foot ashore, by Achillas, who had been commanded to commit this crime. Pompey's wife Cornelia and his son Sextus Pompeius escaped to Cyprus.

When Caesar arrived in pursuit on the third day, Theodotus showed him Pompey's head and ring, but Caesar was offended and wept. Without running any risks he entered a riotous Alexandria.

Caesar, who had been made dictator, restored Cleopatra as queen of Egypt and he won through -at great personal risk- when Ptolemy attacked him, following the advice of the very men who had advised him to kill Pompey. When Ptolemy made his escape, his ship capsized in the Nile.

It [book 112] also contains an account of the difficult march of Marcus [Porcius] Cato and his legions across the African desert, and an unsuccessful war against [king] Pharnaces [of Pontus] waged by Gnaeus Domitius.

Ex libro CXIII
qui est civilis belli quintus

Confirmatis in Africa Pompeianis partibus imperium earum P. Scipioni delatum est, Catone, cui ex aequo deferebatur imperium, cedente. Et cum de diruenda urbe Utica propter favorem civitatis eius in Caesarem deliberaretur, idque ne fieret M. Cato tenuisset, Iuba suadente ut dirueretur, tutela eius et custodia mandata est Catoni.

Cn. Pompeius, Magni filius, in Hispania contractis viribus, quarum ducatum nec Afranius nec Petreius excipere volebant, bellum adversus Caesarem renovavit.

Pharnaces, Mithridatis filius, rex Ponti, sine ulla belli mora victus est.

Cum seditiones Romae a P. Dolabella tr. pl. legem ferente de novis tabulis excitatae essent et ex ea causa plebs tumultuaretur, inductis a M. Antonio, magistro equitum, in urbem militibus octingenti e plebe caesi sunt.

Caesar veteranis cum seditione missionem postulantibus dedit, et cum in Africam traiecisset, adversus copias Iubae regis cum discrimine magno pugnavit.

From book 113
which is the fifth dealing with the civil war

[47] The Pompeian faction had consolidated its position in Africa and after Cato had declined an offer of joint command, the sole command was given to Publius Scipio. When a debate took place about the sack of the city of Utica, whose citizens favored Caesar, and Cato maintained that it should not be done whereas Juba argued for its destruction, Cato was elected as the town's protector and warden.

Gnaeus Pompeius, son of Pompey the Great, assembled an army in Hispania, and because neither Afranius nor Petreius wanted to be commander, he personally started the war against Caesar.

King Pharnaces of Pontus, the son of Mithridates, was defeated [by Caesar] without the slightest delay in the campaign.

The tribune of the plebs Publius Dolabella caused unrest when he proposed a law to cancel debts, and the plebs started to revolt. However, Marc Antony, the master of horse, sent soldiers into the city and 800 people were killed.

Caesar allowed his veterans, who were rebellious and demanded their discharge, what they asked, and crossed into Africa, where he fought at great personal risk against king Juba's men.

Ex libro CXIV
qui est civilis belli sextus

Bellum in Syria Caecilius Bassus, eques Romanus Pompeianarum partium, excitavit, relicto a legione Sexto Caesare, quae ad Bassum transierat, occisoque eo. Caesar Scipionem praetorem Iubamque vicit ad Thapsum, castris eorum expugnatis.

Cato audita re cum se percussisset Uticae et interveniente filio curaretur, inter ipsam curationem rescisso vulnere expiravit anno aetatis XLVIII.

Petreius Iubam seque interfecit. P. Scipio in nave circumventus honestae morti vocem quoque adiecit. Quaerentibus enim imperatorem hostibus dixit: "imperator se bene habet". Faustus et Afranius occisi. Catonis filio venia data.

Brutus legatus Caesaris in Gallia Bellovacos rebellantes proelio vicit.

From book 114
which is the sixth dealing with the civil war

[46] Caecilius Bassus, a Roman knight of the Pompeian faction, provoked a war in Syria, and Sextus Caesar, abandoned by a legion that had transferred its allegiance to Bassus, was killed. Caesar defeated the praetor Scipio and Juba at Thapsus and captured their camp.

When Cato received this news in Utica, he stabbed himself and although his son intervened and tried to rescue him, he reopened the wound that was being nursed, and died at the age of forty-eight.

Petreius killed Juba and himself. Publius Scipio was captured on his ship, and added to his honorable death honorable last words. When his enemies asked him how the general was doing, he replied "the general is doing fine". Faustus and Afranius were killed. Cato's son was pardoned.

Caesar's deputy commander [Decimus] Brutus won a battle in Gaul and defeated the rebellious Bellovaces.

Ex libro CXV
qui est civilis belli septimus

Caesar quattuor triumphos duxit, ex Gallia, ex Aegypto, ex Ponto, ex Africa. Epulum et omnis generis spectacula dedit.

M. Marcello consulari senatu rogante reditum concessit. Quo beneficio eius Marcellus frui non potuit, a Cn. Magio cliente suo Athenis occisus.

Recensum egit, quo censa sunt civium capita CL milia.

Profectusque in Hispaniam adversus Cn. Pompeium, multis utrimque expeditionibus factis et aliquot urbibus expugnatis summam victoriam cum magno discrimine ad Mundam urbem consecutus est. Necatus est Cn. Pompeius, Sex. effugit.

From book 115
which is the seventh dealing with the civil war

Caesar celebrated four triumphs: for his victories in Gaul, Egypt, Pontus, and Africa. He also gave a banquet and several shows.

At the request of the Senate, he allowed former consul Marcus Marcellus to return. However, Marcellus could not benefit from this kindness, because he was murdered in Athens by his client Gnaeus Magius.

Caesar had the citizens counted, and 150,000 people were registered.

He set out for Hispania to fight against Gnaeus Pompeius, and after both sides had conducted several operations and stormed several cities, Caesar won at great risk his greatest victory near the town of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was killed and Sextus made his escape.

to the Periochae of books 116-120
 
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