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Livy: Periochae 116-120


Titus Livius or Livy (59 BCE - 17 CE): Roman historian, author of the authorized version of the history of the Roman republic. Many of the 142 books of  the History of Rome from its beginning are now lost; however, we do have an excerpt, the Periochae.
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Ex libro CXVI
qui est civilis belli octavus

Caesar ex Hispania quintum triumphum egit. Et cum plurimi maximique honores a senatu decreti essent (inter quos ut parens patriae appellaretur et sacrosanctus ac dictator in perpetuum esset) invidiae adversus eum causam praestiterunt, quod senatui deferenti hos honores, cum ante aedem Veneris Genetricis sederet, non adsurrexit, et quod a M. Antonio cos., collega suo, inter lupercos currente diadema capiti suo impositum in sella reposuit, et quod Epidio Marullo et Caesetio Flavo trib. pl., invidiam ei tamquam regnum adfectanti [moventibus potestas] abrogata est.

Ex his causis conspiratione in eum facta, cuius capita fuerunt M. Brutus et C. Cassius et ex Caesaris partibus Dec. Brutus et C. Trebonius, in Pompei curia occisus est XXIII vulneribus occupatumque ab interfectoribus eius Capitolium.

Oblivione deinde caedis eius a senatu decreta, obsidibus Antoni et Lepidi de liberis acceptis coniurati a Capitolio descenderunt.

Testamento Caesaris heres ex parte dimidia institutus est C. Octavius, sororis nepos, et in nomen adoptatus est.

Caesaris corpus cum in campum Martium ferretur, a plebe ante rostra crematum est.

Dictaturae honos in perpetuum sublatus est.

Chamiates, humillimae sortis homo, qui se C. Mari filium ferebat, cum apud credulam plebem seditiones moveret, necatus est.

From book 116
which is the eighth dealing with the civil war

[45 BCE] Caesar celebrated a fifth triumph, for his Spanish victory. [44] After the Senate decreed many of the highest honors (such as the right to be called 'father of the fatherland' together with an eternal inviolability and dictatorship), several grudges rose against him: because he did not rise from his throne in front of the temple of Venus Genetrix when the senators arrived to present him with these honors; because, when his fellow consul Marc Antony, dancing with the luperci, placed a diadem on his head, he placed it on his throne; and because he expelled the tribunes of the plebs Epidius Marullus and Caesetius Flavus from office after they had caused hostility towards him, arguing that he was aiming at one man rule.

For these reasons, a conspiracy was formed against him, its leaders being Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius, and, from Caesar's own men, Decimus Brutus and Gaius Trebonius. With 23 stabs he was murdered in the Curia Pompeia, and the Capitol was occupied by the assassins.

The Senate decreed an amnesty for the murder, and when the besieged conspirators had received the children of Antony and Lepidus as hostages, they descended from the Capitol.

By Caesar's will, Gaius Octavius, the grandson of his sister, was adopted as his son and made heir to half his estate.

When Caesar's corpse was brought to the field of Mars, it was burned in front of the Speaker's platform by the plebs.

The office of dictator was banned forever.

One Chamiates, a man of the lowest rank, pretending to be the son of Gaius Marius, caused disturbances among the credulous plebs, but was killed.

Ex libro CXVII

C. Octavius Romam ex Epiro venit (eo enim illum Caesar praemiserat bellum in Macedonia gesturus) ominibusque prosperis exceptus et nomen Caesaris sumpsit.

In confusione rerum ac tumultu M. Lepidus pontificatum maximum intercepit.

Et M. Antonius cos. cum impotenter dominaretur legemque de permutatione provinciarum per vim tulisset et Caesarem quoque petentem ut sibi adversus percussores avunculi adesset, magnis iniuriis adfecisset, Caesar et sibi et rei p. vires adversus eum paraturus deductos in colonias veteranos excitavit. Legiones quoque quarta et Martia signa ab Antonio ad Caesarem tulerunt, deinde et complures saevitia M. Antoni (passim in castris suis trucidantis qui ei suspecti erant) ad Caesarem desciverunt.

Dec. Brutus ut petenti Cisalpinam Galliam Antonio obsisteret, Mutinam cum exercitu occupavit.

Praeterea discursum utriusque partis virorum ad accipiendas provincias apparatusque belli continet.

From book 117

Gaius Octavius arrived from Epirus (he had been sent there in advance by Caesar to wage war in Macedonia), and after all kind of favorable signs, he accepted the name of Caesar.

In an atmosphere of confusion and disturbance, Marcus Lepidus accepted the office of pontifex maximus.

The consul Marc Antony recklessly tried to dominate the stage and carried a law concerning changes in the assignment of provinces by violence. He intensely hurt [Octavian] Caesar, who came to ask for help against the assassins of his great-uncle. As a result, Caesar started to acquire resources against him in the colonies of the veterans, which he would use for himself and the republic. The Fourth and the Martian legions indeed transferred their loyalty from Antony to Caesar,  and because of the savage behavior of Marc Antony (who killed several suspects in his camp) others followed.

With an army, Decimus Brutus occupied Modena, in order to head off Antony, who was making for Cisalpine Gaul.

It [book 117] also contains an account of the scattering of men on both sides to take over provinces, and describes other preparations for war.

Ex libro CXVIII

M. Brutus in Graecia, sub praetexto rei p. et suscepti contra M. Antonium belli, exercitum cui P. Vatinius praeerat, cum provincia in potestatem suam redegit.

C. Caesari, qui privatus rei p. arma sumpserat, pro praetore imperium a senatu datum est cum consularibus ornamentis adiectumque ut senator esset.

M. Antonius Dec. Brutum Mutinae obsedit, missique ad eum a senatu legati de pace parum ad componendam eam valuerunt. Populus R. saga sumpsit.

M. Brutus in Epiro C. Antonium praetorem cum exercitu potestati suae subegit.

From book 118

In Greece, Marcus Brutus, pretending to act for the benefit of the state and the campaign against Marc Antony that was undertaken, obtained the army of Publius Vatinius and the province as well.

The Senate gave Gaius [Octavian] Caesar, who as a private citizen had built an army, the powers of a propraetor and the ornaments of a consul, and promised that he would be made senator.

Marc Antony besieged Decimus Brutus at Modena, and the envoys sent by the Senate to negotiate peace were unsuccessful, so the Roman people accepted the military dress.

In Epirus, Marcus Brutus overcame praetor Gaius Antonius and his army.

Ex libro CXIX

C. Trebonius in Asia fraude P. Dolabellae occisus est. Ob id facinus Dolabella hostis a senatu iudicatus est.

Cum Pansa cos. male adversus Antonium pugnasset, A. Hirtius cos. cum exercitu superveniens fusis M. Antoni copiis fortunam utriusque partis aequavit. Victus deinde ab Hirtio et Caesare Antonius in Galliam confugit et M. Lepidum cum legionibus quae sub eo erant sibi iunxit, hostisque a senatu cum omnibus qui intra praesidia eius essent iudicatus est. A. Hirtius, qui post victoriam in ipsis hostium castris ceciderat, et C. Pansa ex vulnere quod in adverso proelio exceperat, defunctus in campo Martio sepulti sunt.

Adversus C. Caesarem, qui solus ex tribus ducibus supererat, parum gratus senatus fuit, qui Dec. Bruto obsidione Mutinensi a Caesare liberato triumphi honore decreto Caesaris militumque eius mentionem non satis gratam habuit. Ob quae C. Caesar reconciliata per M. Lepidum cum M. Antonio gratia Romam cum exercitu venit et praeclusis adventu eius his qui in eum iniqui erant, cum XVIIII annos haberet, consul creatus est.

From book 119

By the treachery of Publius Dolabella, Gaius Trebonius was murdered in Asia. Because of this crime, Dolabella was declared to be an enemy by the Senate.

[43] After consul Pansa had unsuccessfully fought against Antony, consul Aulus Hirtius arrived with his army, defeated the troops of Marc Antony and brought the fortunes of both sides in balance again. Antony, defeated by Hirtius and [Octavian] Caesar fled to Gaul, where he joined Marcus Lepidus and the legions under his command; the Senate declared him and every soldier in his army an enemy. Aulus Hirtius, who had been killed in the camp of the enemy after his victory, and Gaius Pansa, who had died from wounds received during his defeat, were buried on the Field of Mars.

The Senate was hardly grateful to Gaius [Octavian] Caesar, who was the only one of three leaders to survive: it voted the honor of a triumph to Decimus Brutus, who had been freed from the siege of Modena by Caesar, and made no satisfying reference to Caesar and his soldiers.

Therefore, Gaius [Octavian] Caesar, on advise by Marcus Lepidus, reconciled himself with Marc Antony, marched on Rome with his army, and, surprising everyone who was against him, was made consul at the age of nineteen.

Ex libro CXX

C. Caesar cos. legem tulit de quaestione habenda in eos quorum opera Caesar pater occisus esset; postulatique ea lege M. Brutus, C. Cassius, Dec. Brutus absentes damnati sunt.

Cum M. Antoni vires Asinius quoque Pollio et Munatius Plancus cum exercitibus suis adiuncti ampliassent; et Dec. Brutus, cui senatus ut persequeretur Antonium mandaverat, relictus a legionibus suis profugisset, caesus iussu Antoni, in cuius potestatem venerat, a Capeno Sequano.

C. Caesar pacem cum Antonio et Lepido fecit ita ut IIIviri rei p. constituendae per quinquennium essent ipse et Lepidus et Antonius et ut suos quisque inimicos proscriberent. In qua proscriptione plurimi equites R., CXXX senatorum nomina fuerunt, et inter eos L. Pauli (fratris M. Lepidi), et L. Caesaris (Antoni avunculi), et M. Ciceronis. Huius occisi a Popillio, legionario milite, cum haberet annos LXIII, caput quoque cum dextra manu in rostris positum est.

Praeterea res a M. Bruto in Graecia gestas continet.

From book 120

As consul, Gaius [Octavian] Caesar carried a law to prosecute those who had been involved in the murder of his father Caesar; under the terms of this law, Marcus Brutus, Gaius Cassius, and Decimus Brutus were condemned in their absence.

Asinius Pollio and Munatius Plancus as well joined Marc Antony with their armies and made him stronger; and Decimus Brutus, whom the Senate had ordered Antony to pursue, was deserted by his legions, fled, and was put to death by Antony, into whose power he had come, by a Sequanian named Capenus.

Gaius [Octavian] Caesar made his peace with Antony and Lepidus. For five years, they were to be triumvirs for the restoration of the republic, and opponents of Lepidus, Antony and Caesar were to be proscribed. Many Roman knights, and the names of 130 senators, were listed, such as Lucius [Aemilius] Paulus (Marcus Lepidus' brother), Lucius Caesar (an uncle of Antony), and Marcus [Tullius] Cicero. He was killed by Popillius, a legionary soldier, at the age of 63. His head and right hand were exposed on the Speaker's platform.

It [book 120] also contains an account of Marcus Brutus' acts in Greece.

to the Periochae of books 121-125
 
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