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Coin of Simon ben Kosiba, showing the Temple with the Messianic star on the roof and the Ark of the Covenant inside (British Museum)
|The Hebrew word mâšîah means 'anointed one' and may indicate Jewish priests, prophets and kings. During the sixth century BCE, the exiled Jews in Babylonia started to hope for a special Anointed One who was to bring them home; several written prophecies were fulfilled when the Persian king Cyrus the Great did in fact allow them to return. In the second century BCE, the Jews were again suffering from repression, and the old prophecies became relevant again. Some people were looking forward to a military leader who would defeat the Seleucid or Roman enemies and establish an independent Jewish kingdom; others, like the author of the Psalms of Solomon, stated that the Messiah was a charismatic teacher who gave the correct interpretation of Mosaic law, was to restore Israel and would judge mankind. Jesus of Nazareth was considered a Messiah; a century later, Simon bar Kochba. The idea of an eschatological king has been present in Judaism ever since.||
The Messianic Psalms
Micah and Isaiah
From Josiah to Cyrus
The Maccabaean revolt
The Messiah as military leader
The Messiah as sage
The Messiah as high-priest
The 'prophet like Moses'
The 'son of'-titles
The two Messiahs of Qumran
The eschatological king
From Messiah to Christ
Later developments: the eschatological kingAs we have seen above, between the Maccabaean revolt and the revolt of Simon ben Kosiba (c.165 BCE - c.140 CE), there were several types of messianism: e.g., the military leader, the sage, the high-priest and the 'prophet like Moses'. These messianologies agreed on two points: the Messiah was to restore Israel and inaugurate an age of peace. To make sense of the contradictory ideas, the sect at Qumran developed the theory that there would be two Messiahs.
After the destruction of Jerusalem in 70, some changes take place. The first of these was, as could be expected, the idea that the Messiah would restore the Temple. This is best documented in the Aramaic translations of the Bible. For example, Targum Isaiah 53.5 states 'and the Messiah will build the sanctuary'.
More important is the combination of messianism and apocalypticism. Admittedly, this is not a completely novel idea; in the book of Daniel, apocalypticism is combined with the appearance of an 'ancient of days' and one who is 'like a son of man'. In the Christian gospels and the Book of Revelation, the 'son of man' is identified with the Messiah, Jesus of Nazareth. All these texts were written after 70.
It is remarkable that the combination of apocalypticism and messianism can also be found in Jewish texts from the last decades of the first century. The first one is 4 Ezra, which was written in 100 CE. This book describes the signs of the end of the age, the Last Judgment. It also contains a vision of a lion and an eagle, which stand for the Messiah who will defeat the Romans. Christian influence on 4 Ezra can not be excluded, especially since the Messiah is also described as the son of God, a motif that has probably no real antecedents in mainstream Judaism (discussed here).
Behold, when he saw the onrush of the approaching multitude, he neither lifted his hand nor held a spear or any weapon of war; but I saw how he sent forth from his mouth as it were a stream of fire, and from his lips a flaming breath, and from his tongue he shot forth a storm of sparks. All these were mingled together, the stream of fire and the flaming breath and the great storm, and fell on the onrushing multitide which was prepared to fight, and burnt them all up, so that suddenly nothing was seen of the innumerable multitude but only the dust of ashes and the smell of smoke.It is tempting to link this with the words of the Christian author Jerome, who wrote about Simon ben Kosiba:
That famed Barchochebas, the instigator of the Jewish uprising, kept fanning a lighted blade of straw in his mouth with puffs of breath so as to give the impression that he was spewing out flames.But let us return to our subject. 2 Baruch seems to be dependent on 4 Ezra and is therefore younger. It is usually dated in the first quarter of the second century. According to the author, the Messiah will appear at the end of times and will defeat Israel's enemies. At the same time, the righteous will be resurrected.
The vocabulary of the Book of similitudes (a part of the First book of Enoch) remains close to Daniel: it speaks often about the 'son of man' and uses the word 'Messiah' only twice. Unfortunately, it can not be dated with great accuracy, although a date in the first century is very likely. This causes an interesting problem: if it was written before 70, the interpretation of Daniel 7 as both messianic and apocalyptic is first attested in the Enoch-literature; if it was written after 80, the idea is a Christian innovation, first attested in the Gospel of Mark. The author of the present article thinks that it is likely that the Similitudes are the younger text; if they had been written before 70, fragments would have found at Qumran. Moreover, the first texts to combine apocalypticism and messianology are the epistles of Paul, written between 51 and 61, and it may be assumed that the Christian world was open for the messianic interpretation of apocalyptic texts.
The connection between messianism and apocalypticism is perhaps the most important development within messianism. Until then, the Messiah was considered a (special) human being, from now on, he was seen as a superhuman, eschatological king. It is tempting to see Christian influence at this point; as we will see below, the idea that the Messiah had a superhuman status, was invented by the Christians.
A new development took place after Simon ben Kosiba's disastrous war against the Romans. Messianic speculations became now suspect. In the Mishna, a very important collection of rabbinical wisdom composed c.200 CE, messianology is almost absent. In later rabbinical writing, Simon's name is changed into Bar Kozeba, 'son of the lie'. However, scepticism was not something new. Shortly after the destuction of the Temple, the famous rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai said:
If you should happen to be holding a sapling in your hand when they tell you that the Messiah has arrived, first plant the sapling and then go out and greet the Messiah.So, are sources are silent or negative about messianology, it is possible to trace the development of the idea. Not surprisingly, the violent military messianology seems to have disappeared - at least from our sources. However, the idea seems to have been alive in certain illiterate groups: c.700, Abu Isa' could present himself as a military Messiah.
The most extensive discussion of messianism after the second century can be found in the Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 96b-99a. This is an overview of many rabbinical opinions and diverse points of view, but what the participants have in common is that they believe that the Messiah will be the sage who will teach the correct interpretation of the Law of Moses. A selection of ideas:
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