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Myra


Map of Myra. Design Jona Lendering. Myra: town in Lycia, modern Demre. The ancient town is especially well-known because it was the residence of Nicholas of Myra, the original saint behind Santa Claus.

Myra, situated on the west bank of the river Myros, was well-known for two reasons: its port Andriake, one of the few save havens along the rocky shores of ancient Lycia, and its temple of Apollo, where the future was predicted by observing the appetite of sacred fishes (Aelian, Animal History, 12.1). There was also a sulfurous spring to the south of the city, from which a small river named Andrakos flowed to the port, where it emptied itself into the Mediterranean Sea.

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Lycian tombs at Myra. Photo Jona Lendering.
Lycian tombs

Like all Lycian towns, Myra appears to have been settled from the late Archaic age. Some of the Lycian rock tombs near the theater belong to the oldest monuments of the city, although the majority dates to the fourth century BCE. Behind them was the acropolis, which had once been occupied in the the Bronze Age, appears to have been abandoned, but was again in use in the Classical period. In the fifth century BCE, the acropolis walls were renewed, and a sanctuary was dedicated to a legendary hero.

In the fourth century BCE, the lower town of Myra also received city walls, and in the next century, it became -due to its position on a fertile plain- one of the six leading towns of Lycia (Strabo, Geography, 14.3.3). When the Ptolemaic king Alexander X Alexander was sent into exile in 88 BCE, he considered Myra to be a fitting royal residence.


The theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering.
The theater

The town had a market place, temples, a town hall, a gymnasium, and a bathhouse that was built by the Romans in the third century CE. The temple of Artemis Eleuthera was called the most splendid building of Lycia. And of course, it had a well-known harbor (cf. Acts of the Apostles, 27.5).

Myra was destroyed in 141 CE, but rebuilt by a rich man named Opramoas, who is known to have paid for the restoration of the gymnasium and the shrine of Artemis. He also erected a statue to the goddess Tyche and spent lavishly for the emperor's cult.

A menorah from Andriake. Archaeological Museum of Antalya (Turkey). Photo Jona Lendering.
A menorah from Andriake (Archaeological Museum of Antalya)


Among the main buildings of Myra were the granaries in Andriake, the sea port, which was situated about four kilometers southwest of the main city. These large buildings, which measured about 36x45 meters, were erected after 129 by the emperor Hadrian, and were meant to serve the Roman army: in case of a war in the east or north, troops could be transferred more easily. A similar granary is known from the port of Patara, a Lycian town west of Myra. The site of the Andriake granary was well-chosen because the harbor, essentially the estuary of the small Andriakos river, was protected against storms by a large promontory. A big chain protected the port against pirates ()

In the harbor used to be at least one island, which has now become part of the mainland; reportedly, the first Christian church, built by Nicholas, stood over here. Russian archaeologists have been digging over there in the 1990s. A satellite photo of the port can be seen here.

In 2009, a Jewish synagogue was discovered - the first evidence for Judaism in Lycia, dating back to the fourth or fifth century. Several finds can today be seen in the Archaeological Museum of Antalya.

Coin of the Roman emperor Gordian III, showing the temple of Artemis in Myra. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Wien (Austria). Photo Jona Lendering.
Myra's temple of Artemis (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna)

Today, the theater is one of the few surviving archaeological remains of the ancient city. It is quite well-preserved (satellite photo). In Antiquity, however, the town was especially famous for its temple of Artemis, which was shown on the urban coins.

According to a medieval legend, bishop Nicholas of Myra destroyed the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; the truth may be that he managed to get the temple of the goddess in his own town closed.

The sun god Helius. Detail of the decoration of the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. The stands of the theater of Myra. Photo Marco Prins. The parodos (entrance) of the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. Theater, detail. Photo Jona Lendering.
The sun god Helios. Detail of the decoration of the theater The theater Entrance of the theater
Theater, detail
Decoration of the chairs of the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. Chairs in the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. Theater masks in the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. Staircase in the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering.
Decoration of the chairs of the theater Chairs in the theater Theater masks Staircase
Capital of a column in the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. Detail of the decoration of the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. The orchestra of the theater of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. The god Hermes. Detail of the decoration of the theater of Myra. Photo Marco Prins.
Capital of a column in the theater of Myra Theater, detail Theater: the orchestra Theater: the god Hermes
A rock tomb. Photo Jona Lendering.
Rock tomb in Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. Andriace, the port of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering. A former island in the harbor of Myra. Photo Jona Lendering.
Rock tomb
Rock tomb Granaries at Andriake Former island in the port

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Jona Lendering for
Livius.Org, 2003
Revision: 13 July 2010
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