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Bust, said to be of Odaenathus. Archaeological Museum of Palmyra (Syria). Photo Marco Prins.
Bust, said to be of Odaenathus. Archaeological Museum of Palmyra (Syria).
Septimius Odaenathus: emperor of Palmyra (260-267).


  • ±220: Septimius Odaenathus 
  • 260: establishes personal rule in the East
  • 262: dux Romanorum, corrector totius Orientis, rex regum
  • Autumn 267: murdered
  • father: Hairanes, son of Vaballathus, son of Nasor
  • first wife: an unknown lady
    • son: Herodian
  • second wife: Zenobia

Main deeds:

  • ±220 Born in Palmyra
  • Exarch of Palmyra
  • Before 258 Consul
  • (Deputy of the?) Proconsul of Syria
  • 260 Valerian taken captive by the Sasanian king Shapur; many usurpations (Macrianus, Quietus in the east; Ingenuus and Regalianus in Pannonia; Postumus in Gaul)
  • 261 Odaenathus captures Emesa, where Quietus had established an independent state
  • 262 Death of Valerian, still captive; Valerian's son Gallienus accepts the existence of the Palmyrene Empire and appoints Odaenathus as dux Romanorum ("leader of the Romans"). Other titles: corrector totius Orientis, rex regum. His son Herodian is also called rex regum.
  • 266 Odaenathus captures Ctesiphon
  • 267 Assassinated with Herodian
Succeeded by: Zenobia, Vaballathus


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