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Coin of Zenobia. Bode-Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering.
Zenobia (Bode-Museum, Berlin)
Zenobia: empress of Palmyra (267-272).
  • date of birth unknown: Julia Aurelia Zenobia 
  • Autumn 267: clarissima regina
  • 270: clarissima pia regina
  • Spring 272: Septimia Zenobia Augusta
  • Summer 272: taken captive
  • died in captivity
Successor of: Odaenathus


Main deeds:

  • 267 Assassination of Odaenathus; Vaballathus recognized as his father's successor (rex regum, corrector totius Orientis, dux Romanorum); Zenobia acts as regent
  • 269 Palmyra breaks with Rome; attack on Ancyra
  • 270 Conquest of Egypt; cult for Zenobia as "New Cleopatra" (?)
  • 272, spring: In the Sasanian empire, Shapur I dies and is succeeded by Hormizd I; Vaballathus starts using full imperial titles and Zenobia calls herself Septimia Zenobia Augusta
  • 272, summer: defeated and captured by Aurelian
  • 273: in the Sassanid empire, Hormizd I is succeeded by Bahram I; Aurelian destroys Palmyra
  • Zenobia died in captivity

Contemporary events:

  • 268 Synod of Antioch declares Paul of Samosata a heretic


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