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Egyptian pharaohs


Horus falcon with double crown, Edfu.
Horus with royal crowns (©!!!)
Pharaoh: common title for the kings of ancient Egypt.

The word pharaoh is a rendering of the Hebrew par'ô, which in turn renders the Egyptian word pr-' ('great house'). From the fifteenth century BCE, this title was used as a synonym to describe the person of the king; in combination with the king's name (e.g., 'pharaoh Amasis'), it is used from the tenth century.

The names of the pharaohs are known from Egyptian texts and the Aegyptiaca of Manetho, an Egyptian priest who lived in the first half of the third century BCE. He divides the Egyptian history in thirty dynasties; sometimes he is wrong, but it is common to follow his division.

After c.2000 BCE, the pharaoh had five names: four throne names and the name he had received when he was born.

  1. the Horus-name (i.e., manifestation of the heavenly falcon)
  2. He of the two ladies (i.e., the twofold country Egypt, represented by the cobra-goddess Wadjet and the vulture-goddess Nekhbet)
  3. the golden Horus-name (expressing eternity)
  4. He of the sedge and bee (e.g., Upper and Lower Egypt)
  5. Son of (the sun god) Ra (i.e., personal name).
For example, a pharaoh could be called
  1. Horus Mighty Bull, Beloved of Truth
  2. He of the two ladies, Risen with the fiery serpent, Great of strength
  3. Horus of gold, Perfect of years, He who makes hearts live
  4. He of the sedge and bee Aakheperkara
  5. Son of Ra Thutmose living forever and eternity
Modern scholars call this king Thutmose I. The same titles were used for foreign rulers. For example, the Horus-name of Alexander the Great was 'protector of Egypt' and his fifth name was 'beloved by Amun, chosen by Ra'.

In the following table, when two names are given, the last one is the personal name. Names in italics indicate queens.
 
Early dynastic
Old kingdom
1st intermediate period
Middle kingdom
2nd intermediate period
New kingdom
3d intermediate period
Late period

 

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Palette of Narmer. Egyptian Museum, Cairo (Egypt).
Palette of Narmer  (Egyptian museum, Cairo; ©!!!)

Early dynastic

First dynasty (c.3000-c.2825)

Narmer (Menes?)
Aha
Djer
Djet
Den (Udimu)
Anedjib (Enezib)
Semerkhet
Qaa
 
Bowl with the name of pharaoh Djer. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden (Netherlands). Photo Jona Lendering.
Bowl with the name of pharaoh Djer (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden)

Second dynasty (c.2825-c.2675)

Hetepsekhemwy
Nebra
Ninetjer
Weneg
Sened
Peribsen
Sekhemib (identical to Peribsen?)
Khasekhemwy

Old kingdom

Third dynasty (c.2675-c.2625)

Sanakhte Nebka
Netjerikhet Djoser
Skhemkhet
Khaba
Huni (Nisuteh)
 
 
Portrait of pharaoh Djedefre. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins.
Djedefre (Louvre, Paris)

Fourth dynasty (c.2625-2500)

Nebmaat Snefru
Medjedu Khufu (Cheops)
Kheper Djedefre
Userib Khafra (Chephren)
Kaykhet Menkaura (Mycerinus)
Shepsesykhet Shepseskaf
 

Fifth dynasty (c.2500-c.2345)

Irmaat Userkaf
Nebkhau Sahura
Userkhau Neferirkara Kakai
Sekhemkau Shepseskare Isi
Neferkhau Nefrefre
Isetibtowy Neuserre
Menkhau Menkauhor Akauhor
Dejedkhau Djedkara Isesi
Wadjtowy Unis


Sixth dynasty (c.2345-2181)

Seheteptowy Teti
Userkare
Merytowy Meryra Pepy I
Ankhkhau Merenre Antiemsaf
Netjerkhau Neferkara Pepy II
Netjerykara
Neithokerti


First intermediate period

Seventh dynasty (c.2181-c.2173)

Nine kings?


Eighth dynasty (c.2173-c.2160)

Six kings?


Ninth and tenth dynasty (c.2160-2040)

Meryibra Akhtoy I
Nebkaura Akhtoy II
Wahkare Akhtoy III
Merikara

Mentuhotep III receiving gifts. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins.
Mentuhotep III receiving gifts (Louvre, Paris)

Eleventh dynasty (2133-1963)

Tepia Mentuhotep I
Sehertowy Inyotef I
Wahankh Inyotef II
Nakhtnebtepnefer Inyotef III
Nebhepetra Mentuhotep II (Smatowy)
Sankhkara Mentuhotep III
Nebtowyre Mentuhotep IV

Sesostris III as a young man. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins.
Senusret III (Louvre, Paris)

Twelfth dynasty (1963-1787)

Sehetepibra Amunemhet I
1963-1934
Kheperkara Senusret I
1934-1899
Nubkaura Amunemhet II
1901-1867
Khakheperra Senusret II
1869-1862
Khakaura Senusret III
1862-1844
Nymara Amunemhet III
1843-1798
Makhurera Amunemhet IV
1797-1790
Sobhkara Sobknofru
1789-1787
 
Sobekhotep V. Neues Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering.
Sobekhotep V (Neues Museum, Berlin)

Middle kingdom

Thirteenth dynasty (Middle Egypt) (1786-c.1648)

Many kings, a.o.:
Khutawyra Wegaf
1785-1783
Sankhibra Ameny Inyotef Amunemhet
Auibra Hor
Sekhemra Khutawy Amunemhet Sobekhotep II
c.1750
Userkara Khendjer
Sekhemra Sewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
Khasekhemra
1741-1730
Neferhotep
1741-1730
Sihathor
1741-1730
Khaneferra Sobekhotep IV
c.1725
Sobekhotep V c.1710?
Merneferra Ay
c.1705
Sekhemra Sankhtawy Iykernofret Neferhotep


Second intermediate period

Fourteenth dynasty (Lower Egypt) (c.1720-c.1648)

Many kings, a.o.:
Aasehra Nehesy

Ahmose. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (USA). Photo Marco Prins.
Ahmose (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

Fifteenth dynasty ('Hyksos') (c.1648-1540)

Many kings, a.o.:
Shalek
c.1640
Bnon
Apachnan
Suesenra Khyan
c.1620
Auserra Apepi
1595-1550
Asehra Khamudy
1550-1540

Sixteenth dynasty ('Hyksos') (c.1648-1540)

Many kings, a.o.:
Anather
Yakobaam

Seventeenth dynasty (Upper Egypt) (c.1648-1540)

Nubkheperra Intef
c.1640
Sekhemra Wadjkhau Sobekemsaf
Senachtenra Taa I
c.1580
Seqenenra Taa II
c.1565
Wadjkheperra Kamose
1545-1541

Detail of a statue of pharaoh Akhenaten and his wife. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins.
Akhenaten (Louvre, Paris)

New kingdom

Eighteenth dynasty (1540-1295)

Nebpehtyra Ahmose
1540-1515
Djeserkara Amenhotep I
1515-1494
Aakheperkara Thutmose I
1494-1482
Aakheperenra Thutmose II
1482-1479
Maatkara Hatshepsut
1479-1457
Menkheperra Thutmose III
1479-1425
Aakheperura Amenhotep II
1427-1401
Menkheperura Thutmose IV
1401-1391
Nebmaatra Amenhotep III
1391-1353
Neferkheperura Waenre Akhenaten
1353-1336
Ankhkhepura Smenkhkara
 1338-1336
Nebkheperura Tutankhamun
1336-1327
Kheperkheperura Irmaat Ay
1326-1322
Dsjeserkheperura Setepenra Horemheb
1322-1295
 
Ramesses II. British Museum, London (Britain). Photo Marco Prins.Ramesses II (British Museum, London)

Nineteenth dynasty (1295-1188)

Menpehtyra Ramesses I
1295-1293
Menmaatra Sety I
1293-1279
Usermaatra Setepenra Ramesses II
1279-1213
Baenra Merynetjeru Merenptah
1213-1203
Userkheperura Setepenra Sety II
1203-1196
Menmira Amenmesse
Akhenra Setepenra Siptah
1196-1190
Sitra Meryamum Tausret
1190-1188
 
Ramesses IV. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins.
Ramesses IV (Louvre, Paris)

Twentieth dynasty (1188-1069)

Userhaura Setepenra Setnakht
1186-1184
Usermaatra Meryamun Ramesses III
1184-1152
Heqamaatra Ramesses IV
1152-1146
Usermara Sekheperenra Ramesses V
1146-1142
Nebmaatra Meryamun Ramesses VI
1142-1134
Usermara Meryamun Setepenra Ramesses VII
1134-1133
Usermara Akhenamun Ramesses VIII
1133-1126
Neferkara Setepenra Ramesses IX
1126-1107
Khepermara Setepenra Ramesses X
1107-1098
Menmaatra Setepenptah Ramesses XI
1098-1069
 
Sphinx of pharaoh Siamun. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins.
Sphinx of pharaoh Siamun (Louvre, Paris)

Third intermediate period

Twenty-first dynasty (Tanis) (1070-945)

Hedjkheperra Setepenra Nesbanebdjed (Smendes)
1069-1043
Khakheperra Setepenamun Pinudjem I
1054-1032
Amenemnisu
1043-1039
Aakheperra Setpenamun Pasebakhaenniut Psusennes I
1039-991
Usermaatra Meryamun Setepenamun Amenemope
993-984
Osochor
984-978
Netjkerheperra Setepenamun Siamun
978-959
Titkeperura Setepenra Pasebakhaenniut Psusennes II
959-945

Statue of Osorkon I, from Byblos. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins.
Osorkon I (Louvre, Paris)

Twenty-second dynasty (Bubastis) (945-715)

Hedjkheperra Setepenra Sheshonq I
945-924
Sekhemkeperra Setepenra Osorkon I
924-889
Heqakheperra Setepenra Sheshonq II
890
Usermara Setepenamun Takelot I
889-874
Usermara Setepenamun Osorkon II
874-850
Hedjkheperra Setepenamun Harsiese
870-860
Hedjkheperra Setepenra Takelot II
850-825
Usermara Setepenra Sheshonq III
825-773
Usermara Setepenra Pimay
773-767
Akheperra Setepenra Sheshonq V
767-730
Akheperra Setepenamun Osorkon IV
730-715
 

Twenty-third dynasty (Leontopolis) (818-715)

Usermara Setepenamun Pedubast I
818-793
Usermara Setepenamun Iuput I
804-783
Usermara Meryamun Sheshonq IV
783-777
Usermara Setepenamun Osorkon III
777-749
Usermara Setepenamun Takelot II
754-734
Usermara Setepenamun Rudamun
734-731
(Usermara Setepenamun?) Iuput II
731-715
Usermara Setepenamun?) Sheshonq VI
720-715

Statue of Taharqo as sphinx. British museum, London (Britain). Photo Jona Lendering.
Taharqo (British museum, London)

Twenty-fourth dynasty (Sais) (740-715)

Tefnakht
740-727
Shepsesra Tefnakht
727-720
Wahkara Bakenranef
720-715

Twenty-fifth dynasty (Nubians) (712-671)

Alara
c.780-760
Maatra Kashta
c.760-747
Usermara Sneferra Piye
c.747-c.716
Neferkara Shabaqo
c.716-c.702
Djedkaura Shebitqo
c.702-c.690
Nefertumkhura Taharqo
c.690-664
Bakara Tanwetamani
664-after656

Relief with the portrait of Aššurbanipal. British museum, London (Britain). Photo Marco Prins.
Aššurbanipal (British museum, London)

Assyrian occupation (671-664)

Esarhaddon
671-669
Aššurbanipal
668-664

Twenty-sixth dynasty (Saites) (664-525)

Mencheperre Nekau (Necho I)
672-664
Wahibra Psamtik I (Psammetichus I)
664-610
Wehemibra Nekau (Necho II)
610-595
Neferibra Psamtik II (Psammetichus II)
595-589
Ha'a'ibra Wahibra (Apries)
589-567
Chenibra Amose-si-Neith (Amasis)
570-526
Anchkaenra Psamtik III (Psammetichus III)
526-525
 
Cambyses sacrifices to the Apis bull. From G. Posener, La première domination Perse en Egypte, 1936.
Cambyses and the Apis (From G. Posener, La première domination Perse en Egypte, 1936; ©!!!)

Late period

Twenty-seventh dynasty (Achaemenids) (525-404)

Cambyses II
525-522
Darius I the Great
522-486
Xerxes I
486-465
Artaxerxes I Makrocheir
465-424
Darius II Nothus
423-404
 

Twenty-eighth dynasty (404-399)

Amyrtaeus
404-398


Twenty-ninth dynasty (399-380)

Nef'aurud I (Nepherites I)
398/397-392/391
Userra Setepenptah Psimut (Psammuthis)
392/391
Maatchnumra Setepemchnum Hakor (Achoris)
392/391-379
Nef'aurud II (Nepherites II)
379/378

Nectanebo II. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden (Holland). Photo Jona Lendering.
Nectanebo II (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden)

Thirtieth dynasty (380-343)

Kheperkare Nakhtnebef (Nectanebo I)
378-361/360
Irmaatenra Djeho (Teos)
361/360-359/358
Nakhthorhebe (Nectanebo II)
359/358-342/341

Second Persian occupation (342-332)

Artaxerxes III Ochus
343-332
Artaxerxes IV Arses
338-336
Darius III Codomannus
336-332
 

Thirty-first dynasty (331-323)

Alexander the Great
331-323

Bust of Cleopatra, Altes Museum, Berlin (Germany). Photo Jona Lendering.
Cleopatra (Altes Museum, Berlin)

Ptolemaic kings (323-30)

Ptolemy I Soter
323-282
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
282-246
Ptolemy III Euergetes
246-222
Ptolemy IV Philopator
222-204
Ptolemy V Epiphanes
205-180
Ptolemy VI Philometor
181-145
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Physcon
145-116
Cleopatra III
116-101
Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros
116-107
Ptolemy X Alexander
107-88
Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros
88-81
Ptolemy XI Alexander
80
Ptolemy XII Auletes
80-58
Berenice IV
58-55
Ptolemy XII Auletes
55-51
Ptolemy XIII
51-47
Ptolemy XIV
47-44
Cleopatra VII Philopator
44-30
 
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