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Philip I Philadelphus

Coin of the Seleucid king Philip I Philadelphus. Museum of Deir ez-Zor (Syria). Photo Marco Prins.
Philip I Philadelphus
Philip I Philadelphus ('the man who loves his brother'): name of a Seleucid king, ruled from 95 to 84/83.

Successor of: Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator

Relatives:

Main deeds:
  • After 114/113, the Seleucid dynasty was divided into two branches, a northern one and a southern one.
  • 97/96: The Egyptian king-in-exile Ptolemy IX Soter Lathyros makes Demetrius III Eucaerus and his (presumed twin) brother Philip I Philadelphus rulers in Damascus; they are successful in their war against Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator.
  • Summer 96: death of Antiochus VIII Grypus; he is succeeded by Seleucus VI
  • Early 95: Seleucus defeats and kills Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, who is succeeded by his son Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator.
  • In the deep south, Demetrius and Philip seem to have expanded their power: from now on, coins are minted for Philip, who seems to ahve resided in Beroea (modern Aleppo)
  • Summer 94: Antiochus X defeats Seleucus VI. Leadership of the northern branch is transferred to Seleucus' brother Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus
  • 93: Antiochus XI in Antioch; his reign, however, comes to an end, and Antiochus X takes over power in both Antioch and the north; Demetrius III and Philip I remain in the south
  • Demetrius intervenes in the Hasmonaean kingdom, against king Alexander Jannaeus.
  • c.89: Parthian invasion; end of the reign of Antiochus X, who is defeated by the Parthian leader Mithridates Sinaces and his ally Aziz the Arab
  • Demetrius breaks off his war against Alexander Jannaeus and captures Antioch
  • Demetrius and his twin brother Philip start to quarrel; Demetrius besieges Aleppo; Philip invites the Parthians to help him
  • 88/87: Demetrius is captured by the Parthians and dies in captivity.
  • Philip now seizes the northern part and is recognized in Antioch
  • He does not control Damascus, where Antiochus XII Dionysus (a brother of Demetrius and Philip) becomes king.
  • 83/82: Antiochus Dionysus is defeated and killed by the Nabataean Arabs; Damascus is seized by Ptolemy of Chalcis
  • c.75: Death of Philip
  • His successor is Antiochus XIII Asiaticus, who goes to Rome to ask for help; in the meantime, Tigranes II the Great of Armenia adds the remains of the Seleucid Empire to his realm
Succeeded by: Tigranes II the Great of Armenia

Sources:

Literature

  • O. Hoover, 'A Late Hellenistic Lead Coinage from Gaza,' in: Israel Numismatic Research 1 (2006), pp. 25-35
  • O. Hoover, 'Revised Chronology for the Late Seleucids at Antioch (121/0-64 BC)' in: Historia 65/3 (2007) 280-301
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