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Philip II Philoromaeus

Philip II Philoromaeus ('friend of the Romans'): name of the last Seleucid king, ruled from 65 to 64.


Main deeds:
  • 75: Death of Philip I Philadelphus
  • His intended successor, Antiochus XIII Asiaticus, visits Rome
  • 74/73: Tigranes II the Great of Armenia conquers the remains of the Seleucid Empire.
  • 69: During the Third Mithridatic War, the Roman general Lucullus attacks Armenia and defeats Tigranes at Tigranocerta.
  • Lucullus reappoints Antiochus XIII Asiaticus as ruler of Syria
  • 68/67: Recall of Lucullus; the Romans give the supreme command in the eastern wars to Pompey the Great
  • 67/66: Supported by the population of Antioch and a local ruler from Cilicia, Philip II Philoromaeus expels his relative Antiochus XIII from Antioch
  • 77/65: Return of Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
  • 64: Pompey annexes Syria as province of the Roman Empire and dethrones Antiochus; the fate of Antiochus X is not known.
  • 58: Fall of Ptolemy XII Auletes, king of Egypt. Philip II Philoromaeus tries to obtain the Ptolemaic throne by marrying Berenice IV, but the Roman governor of Syria, Aulus Gabinius, prevents this.


  • O. Hoover, 'Revised Chronology for the Late Seleucids at Antioch (121/0-64 BC)' in: Historia 65/3 (2007) 280-301
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