Alexandria in Aria was founded by the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great during his campaign against Satibarzanes in the Autumn of 330 BC. The city is identical to modern Herat in the northwest of Afghanistan. It may have been a refoundation of an older town, viz. the Arian capital Artacoana, and may have played a role in the insurrection of Satibarzanes.
Historical sources mention the presence of a Zoroastrian fire altar.
Alexander's city is believed to be located underneath the mound on which the present citadel was erected. This makes archaeological excavation difficult. Aerial photographs show that once, this town had large irrigation canals.