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Ptolemy X Alexander

Bust of Ptolemy X Alexander. Musée Royal de Mariemont, Morlanweltz (Belgium). Photo Marco Prins.
Ptolemy X Alexander. Musée royal de Mariemont, Morlanwelz
Ptolemy X Alexander: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 107 to 88.


Main deeds:

  • 28 June 116: Death of Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who is succeeded by Cleopatra III. She wants to rule with Ptolemy X Alexander, but the Alexandrines force her to accept Ptolemy IX Soter, who is fourteen years old, as co-ruler. Ptolemy X, even younger, is briefly made general of Cyprus.
  • 114: Ptolemy X starts to call himself king.
  • October 110-February 109: Ptolemy X replaces Ptolemy IX as co-ruler; this attempt to make Ptolemy X king is a failure, and he returns to Cyprus
  • March 108: Ptolemy X briefly replaces Ptolemy IX, but this second attempt is a failure too, and Ptolemy IX returns to power
  • October 107: Ptolemy IX is forced to flee to Cyprus; Ptolemy X Alexander finally becomes co-ruler
  • c.105: Birth of Ptolemy XI Alexander
  • Ptolemy X Alexander marries Cleopatra Berenice III (daughter of Ptolemy IX and Cleopatra IV); they have a daughter
  • 103: Antiochus IX Cyzicenus supports the Samarians against the Hasmonaean king John Hyrcanus of Judaea; Ptolemy IX Soter supports Antiochus, hoping that Judaea will be a first step to a return to Egypt.
  • 103: Ptolemy X Alexander sends his baby son Ptolemy XI Alexander to Kos, invades Judaea, reaches Damascus, and returns
  • 20 February 102: Cleopatra III defeats Ptolemy IX Soter near Pelusium
  • 26 October 101: Ptolemy X Alexander orders the killing of Cleopatra and continues as sole ruler
  • 100: Berenice III accepts Ptolemy XI Alexander, who is still on Kos, as son; the boy is recognized as king, but stays in Greece
  • 91: Revolt in the Thebaid
  • 88: The Alexandrines expell their king, perhaps because his ties with the Jews were considered to be too close; Ptolemy IX Soter becomes king and defeats Ptolemy X Alexander (October 88)
  • Ptolemy X flees to Myra, where he starts to build an army; the Romans support him but demand that he changes his will; the king must one day leave his realm to Rome
  • December (?) 88: On Cyprus, Ptolemy X Alexander fights against general Chaereas, and is defeated and killed
Succeeded by: Ptolemy IX Soter

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Revision: 27 January 2007
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