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Ptolemy XII Auletes


Head of Ptolemy XII Auletes. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Jona Lendering.
Ptolemy XII Auletes (Louvre, Paris)
Ptolemy XII Auletes ('the flutist'): king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 80 to 58 and from 55 to 51.

Relatives:

Main deeds:

  • 28 June 116: Death of Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who is succeeded by Cleopatra III. She wants to rule with Ptolemy X Alexander, but the Alexandrines force her to accept Ptolemy IX Soter, who is fourteen years old, as co-ruler.
  • After 115: Birth of Ptolemy XII Auletes, son of king Ptolemy IX Soter
  • October 107: Ptolemy IX is forced to flee to Cyprus, leaving his wives and children behind; Ptolemy X Alexander becomes co-ruler
  • 103: Antiochus IX Cyzicenus supports the Samarians against the Hasmonaean king John Hyrcanus of Judaea; Ptolemy IX Soter supports Antiochus, hoping that Judaea will be a first step to a return to Egypt.
  • 103: Ptolemy X Alexander sends all Ptolemaic children to Kos, where they are safe.
  • 89: Outbreak of the Second Mithradatic War: king Mithridates VI of Pontus attacks the Roman possessions in Asia
  • 88: Ptolemy XII Auletes and the other princes are handed over to Mithridates. At the same time, Ptolemy IX Soter replaces Ptolemy X Alexander, who is killed soon after.
  • 84: Ptolemy XII Auletes is engaged to a daughter of Mithradates.
  • 80: Death of Ptolemy IX Soter; he is succeeded by a Roman appointee, Ptolemy XI Alexander, but this king is lynched almost immediately after his arrival in Alexandria.
  • Before 11 September 80, Ptolemy XII Auletes has been recognized as king.
  • 80/79: He marries his sister, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena.
  • 26 March 76: traditional coronation as pharaoh; he embarks upon a policy of improving the position of the native population, and marries to an Egyptian lady
  • 76: Birth of Berenice IV
  • 70/69: Birth of Cleopatra VII
  • Fall of Cleopatra VI Tryphaena
  • 67: The Roman commander Pompey the Great is in the east, fighting against Cilician pirates, king Mithridates VI of Pontus (Third Mithridatic War), and tribes in Armenia.
  • 65: Although Ptolemy XII supports Pompey, Rome discusses the annexation of Egypt
  • 64: End of the Seleucid Empire; it becomes a Roman province (Syria)
  • 63: Pompey conquers Judaea (more...); revolts in Egypt
  • 61: Birth of Ptolemy XIII
  • 59: Ptolemy XII Auletes promises 6,000 talents to Pompey and Julius Caesar (consul in 59), and is recognized as 'ally and fried of the Roman nation'; amnesty for the rebels in Egypt
  • c.59: Birth of Ptolemy XIV
  • 58: Rome annexes Cyprus; riots in Alexandria; Ptolemy is forced to flee (September); the new ruler of Egypt is Berenice IV
  • 57: Ptolemy visits Cyprus and Rome, but is unable to obtain support; he goes to Ephesus
  • 56/55: The Roman governor in Syria, Aulus Gabinius, bribed by Ptolemy XII and encouraged by Pompey, agrees to support Ptolemy, who is in Alexandria in March 55; a Roman military unit supports the king. Berenice is executed in July.
  • 52: Cleopatra VII made co-ruler
  • February/March 51: Death.
Egyptian title: Iwaenpanetjernehem Setepptah Irmaat; ankhdjet meryptah siese ('Son of the avenging god, Chosen by Ptah, Dispenser of justice; may he live forever, beloved of Ptah, son of Isis'; 'avenging god' is the common translation of Soter, the surname of Ptolemy IX; it also refers to the god Horus)

Succeeded by: Cleopatra VII

Information on the web:

 
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This page was prepared to offer background information to the real articles on Livius.Org. One day, it will be improved. A list of completed articles can be found here.
Jona Lendering for
Livius.Org, 2006
Revision: 7 April 2006
Livius.Org Anatolia Carthage Egypt Germ. Inf. Greece Judaea Mesopotamia Persia Rome Other