|Ptolemy XIII: king of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 50
to 47 as co-ruler and rival of Cleopatra VII.
- 61: Born
- February/March 51: Death of Ptolemy's father, Ptolemy XII Auletes. He is succeeded by Cleopatra VII
- Summer 50: Cleopatra accepts her brother Ptolemy XIII as co-ruler
- Summer 49: Sole rule of Ptolemy XIII, recognized by both Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman dictator, and his opponent, Pompey the Great.
- Cleopatra remains queen in the Thebaid, and accepts another brother, Ptolemy XIV, as co-ruler. His main courtiers are Achillas, Theodotus, and Pothinus.
- 48: Cleopatra tries to return, but her army is defeated near Pelusium.
- 48: Caesar defeats Pompey (battle of Pharsalus); Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed by courtiers of Ptolemy XIII
arrives in Egypt and orders Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII to disband
their armies, but instead, war breaks out (text).
- 14 January 47: Ptolemy is killed in action
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