Tolsum Writing-Tablet or Tabula Tolsummiana: oldest written text from the Netherlands.
Many details remain unclear. Is the name of the second signatory a Batavian with a native name, Miunnius, or did this man have the Roman name Marcus Junnius? Is Giricaemium a place name, or is it the name of a tribe ("among the Giricaemi"). Who is to receive what from whom?
FRONT... CARO IVLIAe SECVNDAE
QVOS EA REDdERE
DEBeO QVA DIE PETIE-
RIT AVT AD QVEM
EA RES PERTINEBIt
ACTVM VII Kalendas MAR-
Caio FVFEO GEMIN-
iO COnSvle. INTERPRETA-
|[I declare to have received ... from] Carus, [slave of] Julia Secunda, which I am obliged to pay back to him/her (or to whomsoever this matter pertains) on the day on which he/she shall ask for them. Transacted on 23 February at Giricaemium, in the consulship of Gaius Fufius Geminius. Quadratus acted as interpreter.|
BACKTitvs CASSIVS TRibvnvs LEGionis V
MIVNNIs MILes Nvmeri
|Titus Cassius, tribune of the Fifth Legion;
Miunnius, soldier of the Batavian auxiliaries, subunit of Bonumotus;
Caturix, slave of the said Secunda.
- In May 2010, the journal of the Frisian Academy, It Beaken, published a special issue on the Tolsum Writing-Tablet, "Het geheim van Tolsum. Een herinterpretatie van een Romeins schrijfplankje". All articles are in Dutch, except for the most important one: A.K. Bowman & R.S.O. Tomlin, "The 'Frisian ox sale'. A writing-tablet from Tolsum", in It Beaken 71 (2009) 211-236.
- Another article is A.K. Bowman, R.S.O. Tomlin, K.A. Worp, "Emptio Bovis Frisica: the 'Frisian Ox Sale' Reconsidered", in the Journal of Roman Studies 99 (2009), 156–170.