XPa

Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions: collection of Old Persian cuneiform texts from the sixth, fifth, and fourth centuries BCE, left by the Achaemenid kings on their official monuments.

The following text, known as XPa, is inscribed in the walls of the Gate of all Nations, the main gate to the terrace on which the Persepolis palaces have been built. Next to the Old Persian text are Babylonian and Elamite translations.

  1. baga \ vazraka \ Auramazdâ \ hya \ imâm \ bûmim \ a-
  2. dâ \ hya \ avam \ asmânam \ adâ \ hya \ martiyam \
  3. adâ \ hya \ šiyâtim \ adâ \ martiyahyâ \ hya
  4. \ Xšhayâršâm \ xšâyathiyam \ akunauš \ aivam \
  5. parûnâm \ xšâyathiyam \ aivam \ parûnâm \ fram-
  6. âtâram \ adam \ Xšayâršâ \ xšâyathiya \ vazraka \
  7. xšâyathiya \ xšâyathiyânâm \ xšâyathiya \ dahy-
  8. ûnâm \ paruv \ zanânâm \ xšâyathiya \ ahyây-
  9. â \ bûmiyâ \ vazrakâyâ \ dûraiy \ apiy \ Dâ-
  10. rayavahauš \ xšâyathiyahyâ \ puça \ Hâxâmaniš-
  11. iya \ thâtiy \ Xšayâršâ \ xšâyathiya \ vašnâ \
  12. Auramazdâhâ \ imam \ duvarthim \ visadahyum
  13. \ adam \ akunavam \ vasiy \ aniyašciy \ naibam
  14. \ kartam \ anâ \ Pârsâ \ tya \ adam \ akunavam \
  15. utamaiy \ tya \ pitâ \ akunauš \ tyapatiy \ ka-
  16. rtam \ vainataiy \ naibam \ ava \ visam \ vašnâ \ A-
  17. uramazdâhâ \ akumâ \ thâtiy \ Xšayâršâ \
  18. xšâyathiya \ mâm \ Auramazdâ \ pâtuv \ utamai-
  19. y \ xšaçam \ utâ \ tya \ manâ \ kartam \ utâ \ tyamai-
  20. y \ piça \ kartam \ avašciy \ Auramazdâ \ pâtuv
Inscription XPa

[1-6] A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this earth, who created heaven, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Xerxes king, one king of many kings, commander of many commanders.

[6-11] I am Xerxes, the great king, the king of kings, the king of all countries and many men, the king in this great earth far and wide, the the son of Darius, an Achaemenid.

[11-17] King Xerxes says: by the favor of Ahuramazda this Gate of All Nations I built. Much else that is beautiful was built in this Persepolis (Pârsâ), which I built and my father built. Whatever has been built and seems beautiful - all that we built by the favor of Ahuramazda.

[17-20] King Xerxes says: may Ahuramazda preserve me, my kingdom, what has been built by me, and what has been built by my father. That, indeed, may Ahuramazda preserve.

Literature