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Bronze portrait of the emperor Trajan. Glyptothek, München (Germany). Photo Marco Prins.
Trajan (Glyptothek, München)
Trajan: emperor of the Roman world (98-117).


  • 18 September 53: Marcus Ulpius Trajanus Crinitus 
  • October 97: Imperator caesar Nerva Trajanus 
  • 28 January 98: Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus 
  • Germanicus (97), Dacicus (102), Optimus (114), Parthicus (116) 
  • 7 August 117: natural death
Successor of: Nerva


Early career

Main deeds:

  • 97 Adopted by Nerva as caesar
  • 98 Consul III (with Nerva); Nerva dies; Trajan recognized as emperor; visits Germania Inferior
  • 99 Arrival in Rome
  • 100 Consul III (with Sextus Julius Frontinus III); Pliny the Younger consul suffectus
  • 101 Consul IV (with Quintus Articuleius Paetus); begin of the Dacian War
  • 102 First Dacian Triumph
  • 103 Consul V (with M' Laberius Maximus II)
  • 105 Begin of the Second Dacian War
  • 106 Conquest of Dacia, annexation of Arabia Petraea
  • 107 Second Dacian Triumph; debasement of the denarius
  • 108 Decenalia
  • 109 Inauguration of the Aqua Traiana and the Baths of Trajan; monument of Adamklisi
  • 112 Consul VI (with Titus Sextius Africanus); inauguration of the Forum of Trajan
  • 113 Re-inauguation of the Temple of Venus on the Forum of Caesar
  • 114 Arrival in Antioch; accepts the title Optimus; beginning of the war against the Parthian Empire; bad omens (Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.23.14)
  • 115 Continued war; annexation of Armenia and Mesopotamia; survives earthquake in Antioch; revolt of the Jews
  • 116 Continued war; spread of Jewish revolt; the situation in the new provinces in the east deteroriates
  • 117 Death without son or appointed successor; empress Plotina enables Hadrian's succession; Hadrian abandons all conquests east of the Euphrates
New legions: II Traiana Fortis, XXX Ulpia Victrix


Contemporary events:

  • 98 Tacitus publishes the Germania
  • 100 Panegyricus of Pliny the Younger
  • 101 Epictetus, Discourses; death of Silius Italicus
  • 103 Death of Sextus Julius Frontinus
  • 110 Death of Ignatius of Antioch
Succeeded by: Hadrian


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