BM 132276 (AD -245 A),
rev. (British Museum).**
RM 767 (AD -245 B), obverse (British Museum).**
Description of the tablet
Of this diary two parts are extant, labelled A and
A consists of two fragments, one the
upper left part, now in Paris (MNB 1874!), and the other, adjoining
at the right side, now in the British Museum (BM 132276 (1958-4-12,10)).
Cf photograph AD II, plate 82.
B consists of four fragments which
are joined: Rm 767 + 818 + BM 41633 (= 81-6-25,249) + 77244 (= 83-6-30,24).
BM 132276 I collated on 23 March 2004. This fragment is a thick and heavy
fragment of 3.8 cm thickness, height 9 cm. and width 9 cm (at dividing
line on obverse). The dividing line on the reverse measures 7.5 cm.
TEXT: A OBVERSE (month I)
@ = tsade; & = tet
line numbers with link refer to commentary
66 = 4 April-3 May 246
|1 MU 66.KAM mAn-ti-'-ku-su LUGAL BAR
||Year 66, Antiochus king. Nisannu (…)
|11 (… ) ITI BI UD 6.KAM BÀD šá É.SAG.Í[L
||(…) That month, the 6th (9 April 246 BC). The wall of Esagi[la
|12 [.. .. É.SAG].ÍL ul
x x il-lik-'u U4-mu šu-ú SIG4.HI.A
lìb-bi DU-'u ITI BI UD 11.K[AM …..]
||12 [to Esag]ila not x x they went. That day: bricks within it they
made. That month, day 11 (14 April) […..]
|13 [.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..] x [ mS]i-lu-kumAn-ti-'-ku-su
u fA-pa-am-mu DUMU.MEŠ-šú ina É.SAG.ÍL
||[.. .. .. .. .. ..] x [S]eleucus,
Antiochus and Apame, his children, in Esagila x[…..]
TEXT: B OBVERSE (month III)
Simânu SE 66 = 2 June – 1 July 246
|3' [ITI BI] mSi-lu-ku A
L[UGAL .. .. .. .. ..] iš-ta-nak-/kan\ [.. .. .. .. .. ..
.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..]
||[That month,] Seleucus, son of Antiochus,
the k[ing …..] established […..]
|4' [.. .. .. ..] lúšà-tam-mu
É.SAG.ÍL lúda-ta-b[a-ar-ra ù
E.KI.MEŠ ki-niš-tú É.SAG.ÍL x x x x x x x x
x x x [.. ..]
||[.. .. .. ..] the shatammu
of Esagila, the datab[arra and the] Babylonians (of) the
of Esagila x x x x
|5' [.. .. .. ..] DI É šá
ina IGI-ma mLam-ú-di-ke' a-n[a
.. .. .. .. ..].MEŠ ma-du-tu ina lìb-bi DÙ-' NINDA.HI.A
KÙ-' ni-gu-tú ina lìb-bi |
||[.. .. .. ..] x the estate? which in the past Laodice
t[o ….,] numerous [offering]s within it they made. They ate bread;
a festival was held in it.
TEXT: A REVERSE (month V)
Abu SE 66 = 31 July – 29 August 246
|5' [.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. É].SAG.GÍL
GÁL-ši ITI BI UD 20.KAM ina E.KI it-ti-šem-m[u
um-mamAn-ti-'-ku-su LUGAL GAL-ú]
||[….. within E]sagila occurred. That month, the 20th, (19 August) it
was heard in Babylon
[as follows: "Antiochus, the great king,
|6' [NAM.MEŠ .. .. .. .. .. .. hat-t]ú?u
pu-luh-tum ina KUR GÁL-ši
||[has died". ….]x and fear was in the land.
TEXT: B Lower edge
|[email protected] šá gi-né-e šá TA BAR EN KIN mAn-ti-'-ku-su
LUGAL TA IZI EN KIN mSi-/lu\-k[u]
||Regular observations from Nisannu
Antiochus king; from Abu
to Ulûlu, Seleucus, his son, king.
A Obverse 12
One of the attestations in the diaries that repairs on Esagila were
regularly being made.
fA-pa-am-mu. Hunger transliterated a masculine determinative
here, but the feminine denominator (SAL = f) is clearly visible on the
tablet. The name can be no other than Apamê and we are relieved from
previous attempts to create masculine names like Apames (Sherwin-White,
Kuhrt 1993: 231) or Apammos (Van der Spek 1993a: 72 note 7, where I assumed
that this Apammos was the son of Antiochus II and Berenice
Phernephorus. We now know that the latter was also called Antiochus
(Blümel 1992; Kobes 1995)).
The daughter in question was unquestionably a daughter of Antiochus
and Laodice. Laodice gave birth to three daughters, Stratonice
and the mother of Antipater, whose name was hitherto unknown (Porphyrius,
260 F 32,6; Polybius
of Megalopolis, World History, 5.79.12). So we now know the name.
We cannot be certain from this line that the children were present in
Babylon on this day. It may be that they attended the last day of the Akitu
festival (1-11 Nisannu), but one must consider the possibility that
someone presented offerings "[for the life of Antiochus, the king, and
for S]eleucus, Antiochus and Apamê in Esagila". Against this option
plead two arguments:
The question remains open.
the construction with "in Esagila" in this part of the sentence is not
paralleled by other descriptions of offerings for the life of kings;
offerings "for the life of the king" are not attested in the diaries before
B Obverse 3'
iš-ta-nak-/kan\ (Hunger read: iš ta ka ak)
is the Gtn stem of the verb šakânu. This verb has a variety
of meanings, of which "to place, to establish, to institute, to provide"
are the most prominent (cf. CAD Š1, p. 116-157). The Gtn stem gives the
verb an iterative meaning. Seleucus, the crown prince, seems to have instituted
something on a regular basis, probably relating to the temple.
Dâtabarra is an Old Persian loanword indicating "a high
judicial official" (CAD D, p. 122 s.v.), "law-officer" (Stolper 1985: 91).
"It is reasonable to believe that the title labels an officer in the satrapal
service, homologous with the judges (DI.KUD.MEŠ) of Gobryas the satrap,
mentioned in later texts of the (Murashû) archive" (ibidem). Note
the continued use of the Old Persian loanword dâta, "law",
Babylonia in CT 49, 102:7 (= Stolper 1993, p. 51, no. 17); 137: 29; 173:11
(= Stolper 1993, p. 25, no. 8); ZA 3 (1888) 150, no. 13:9 (= Stolper 1993,
p. 28, no. 9. For a discussion: Stolper 1993, p. 60-3.
It is remarkable that the dâtabara is inserted here between
the shatammu and the kinishtu, though it is not without parallel.
In CT 49, 118:2; 122:3; 123:3 and 182:3 a paqdu ("representative")
of Nikanor is mentioned in the same place. The texts are letters about
the payment of rations (for a discussion see Boiy 2000: 208). The persons
in question probably are royal officials who kept an eye on the finances
of the temple. In this case it may well have something to do with the land
conveyance of Laodice and her sons to Babylon (see next line).
The Laodice here mentioned is Antiochus' wife. The line probably refers
to the land grant, which Antiochus II had made to his wife Laodice and
her sons, who in turn gave it to the Babylonians, as is registered in the
Lehmann text [to be published]. Festivities were held on the occasion,
offerings presented. The enigmatic phrase "they ate bread in it" occurs
here again, which in other contexts points at a Greek practice. See Ruin
of Esagila Chronicle (BCHP 6), line 9 with commentary.
A Reverse 5'-6'
In view of the fact that the Babylonian
King List of the Hellenistic Period mentions the report of Antiochus'
death in this very month, it cannot be something else here. It is telling
that this death caused fear in Babylonia. Together with the news of Antiochus'
death, news on the struggle between the queens Berenice and Laodice may
have arrived as well. A victory for Berenice must have been viewed with
anxiety in view of the recent land grants by Laodice, who likely would
be annulled (Cf. Van der Spek 1993).
B Lower edge
This line may show that Seleucus
II Callinicus was immediately accepted as king at the report of his
father’s death. If the tablet is a later copy, it could have been constructed
this way from hindsight.