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Livius

The Livius.org website offers articles on ancient history. We are currently improving the site, which has more than 3650 pages. At the moment, there are 538 articles in the new style. You can search to find what you are looking for or browse through the articles using categories or tags. The pages that were most recently converted to the new style, are listed below.

Fasces

Fasces: set of rods bound in the form of a bundle which contained an axe. In ancient Rome, the bodyguards of a magistrate carried fasces.

This page was created on 22 July 2014.

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Achoris

Achoris (Maatchnumra Setepemchnum Hakor): pharaoh of the twenty-ninth, Mendesian dynasty (392/391-379).

This page was created on 22 July 2014.

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Taxila - Sirkap's sanctuaries

Map of TaxilaThe second city at Taxila is called Sirkap and was founded by the Bactrian king Demetrius, who conquered this region in the 180s BCE, and rebuilt by king Menander. Taxila's sanctuaries reflect the multicultural nature of the Indo-Greek kingdom, which consisted not only of the Punjab, but also of Gandara, (i.e., the valley of the Kabul and Swat), Arachosia, and a part of the Ganges valley.

This page was created on 22 July 2014.

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Taxila - Mohra Moradu

Map of TaxilaMohra Moradu is a Buddhist complex, consisting of two parts: in the west, a stupa (venerated tomb), and in the east, a monastery. The latter is situated between two hill spurs. The monks could meditate and study in all quietness, a kilometer-and-a-half away from the noise of the city at Taxila-Sirsukh; yet, they were close enough to the town to beg for alms.

This page was created on 21 July 2014.

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Taxila - Jaulian

Map of TaxilaFar away from the noise of the city of Taxila-Sirsukh, the monastery and university of Jaulian was situated on a mountain top that rises some 100 meters above the surrounding country - on a cool and dustless site.

This page was created on 21 July 2014.

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Taxila - Sirsukh

Map of TaxilaAfter 80 CE, the Punjab, which had been conquered by Macedonians, Greeks, Sacae, and Parthians, was taken over by the Yuezhi nomads or Kushans, a tribe that had once lived in northern China. Their king Kanishka abandoned the part of Taxila known as Sirkap, and founded - in a green and lush valley - Sirsukh. It was to become famous for its fortifications.

This page was created on 21 July 2014.

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Taxila - Jandial

Map of TaxilaThe sanctuary at Jandial, one of the sites collectively known as Taxila, is one of the greatest surprises in the Punjab, because the ruins are hard to distinguish from a Greek temple built according to the Ionic order. It is constructed on a 15 meters high artificial mound. Using Greek parallels, the structure in front of the building, which is unique in the Punjab, can be identified as an altar.

This page was created on 21 July 2014.

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